foe foofo|ky; mTtSu

ch-,M- ikB~;e

fo"k; lwph

i`"B ekad

fo"k;

I mnh;eku Hkkjrh; lekt esa fk{kd

II vf/kxedrkZ dk fodkl ,oa fk{k.k vf/kxe f;k

III ek/;fed fk{kk ,oa fk{kdh; dk;Z

IV kSf{kd rduhdh ds ro ,oa cU/k

V fo"k;oLrq lg fk{k.kfof/k &fo"k; fk{k.k Fke

       fgUnh fk{k.k

       vaxsth fk{k.k

       laLr fk{k.k

       mnwZ f'k{k.k

       bfrgkl fk{k.k

       Hkwxksy fk{k.k

       foKku fk{k.k

       jlk;u foKku fk{k.k

       HkkSfrd foKku fk{k.k

VI fo"k;oLrq lg fk{k.kfof/k fk{k.k f}rh;

       UkkxfjdkkL= fk{k.k

       vFkZkkL= fk{k.k

       lkekftd foKku fk{k.k

       xf.kr fk{k.k

       thofoKku fk{k.k

VII vfrfjDr fofk"Vhdj.k

       f;kRed vuqlU/kku

       kS<+ fk{kk

       Lkax.kd fk{kk

       Lkqnwj fk{kk@nwjLFk fk{kk

       kSf{kd kklu] laxBu ,oa Ik;Zos{k.k

       kSf{kd rduhdh

       Ik;kZoj.k fk{kk

       funsZku ,oa ijkekZ

       LokLF; ,oa kkjhfjd fk{kk

       Ekkiu ,oa ewY;kadu

       vukSipkfjd fk{kk

       tula[;k fk{kk

       fofk"V fk{kk

       tutkrh; fk{kk

       ewY; fk{kk

       L=h fk{kk

dk;kZuqHko

1 f"k 6 laxhr

2 Ckkxokuh ,oa m|kufo|k 7 u`R;

3 flykbZ ,oa d<+kbZ 8 f[kykSuk fuekZ.k

4 iqLrdksa dh ftYncUnh

5 fp=dyk ,oa isf.Vax

 

lw{e fk{k.k

lkeqnkf;d dk;Z@lkekftd lsok

mn~ns;

1-                  fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh ekufldrk dks tkuus ds fy, fk{kd fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa esa le> fodflr djukA

2-                  fk{kd fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks lkekftd f;k dks le>us ;ksX; cukukA

3-                  fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa esa funsZku ,oa ijkekZ dkSky dks fodflr djukA

4-                  fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks bl ;ksX; cukuk fd os fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa Kku ds iqufuZekZ.k ds fy, f;kRed lksp fodflr dj ldsaA

5-                  fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks kSf{kd f;k ,oa d{kk&d{k ifjfLFkfr;ksa dks Hkkfor djus okys dkjd ,oa kfDr;ksa vkUrfjd ,oa ckg~; ls ifjfpr djkukA

6-                  fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks fofk"V lewg ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh kSf{kd vko;drkvksa ls voxr djkukA

7-                  fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks lkeqnkf;d lalk/kuksa dh kSf{kd lUnHkZ esa mi;ksfxrk ls voxr djkukA

8-                  fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa esa lEs"k.k dkSky rFkk lwpuk rduhdh ds ;ksx dh ;ksX;rk dk fodkl djukA

9-                  fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks f;kRed vuqlU/kku djus ,oa uokpkj dk ;ksx djus ds ;ksX; cukukA

10-              fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa esa vkthou vf/kxe dh Hkkouk fodflr djukA

 

 

 

 

 

Ikk=rk &

,u-lh-Vh-bZ- ds ekun.Mksa ds vuqlkjA

ikB~;e dh vof/k & ,do"khZ; ch-,M- ikB~;e dh vof/k] ,d kSf{kd o"kZ & 1 tqykbZ ls 30 vsy rd gksxhA

ikB~;e k:Ik &

ch-,M- dk ikB~;e nks Hkkxksa esa lS)kfUrd & Fke ,oa k;ksfxd & f}rh; gS tks fd fuEukuqlkj gS &%

Hkkx&1&lS)kafrd

1-

mnh;eku Hkkjr esa fk{kk

2-

vf/kxedrkZ dk fodkl ,oa fk{k.k f;k

3-

Ekk/;fed fk{kk ,oa fk{kdh; dk;Z

4-

kSf{kd rduhdh ds rRo ,oa cU/k

5-

fk{k.k i)fr@fk{k.k fof/kFke

6-

fk{k.k i)fr@fk{k.k fof/k f}rh;

7-

vfrfjDr fofk"Vhdj.k@fofk"V v/;;u

 

uksV&

        fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ds fo"k; dk Kku gksuk pkfg, Vsfcy 1 ds vuqlkjA

        Vsfcy 2 ns[kas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hkkx II k;ksfxd

1-

Lkw{e v/;kiu & 7 dkSky] 3 ikB fr dkSky

2-

fo"k; fk{k.k Fke & 15 ikB* rhu ikB ,-,y-,e- fof/k ls i<+kuk vfuok;Z

3-

fo"k; fk{k.k f}rh; & 15 ikB* rhu ikB ,-,y-,e- fof/k ls i<+kuk vfuok;Z

4-

10 ikBksa dk fujh{k.k ,oa laxks"Bh

5-

nks vkykspukRed ikB ,d ikB fr fo"k; fk{k.k

6-

okf"kZd ikB;kstuk fk{k.k Fke vFkok okf"kZd ;kstuk fk{k.k f}rh;

7-

ekSf[kd ijh{kk okf"kZd ikB ;kstuk ds vk/kkj ij**

8-

dk;kZuqHko***

9-

5 euksfoKku ;ksx

10

Lkkeqnkf;d dk;Z@lkekftd lsok****

11-

ikB~;lgxkeh f;k,

12-

lS)kfUrd ui=ksa ij vk/kkfjr l=h; dk;Z

13-

iwoZ foofo|ky; ijh{kk l=kar ijh{k

 

 

* nsf[k;s Vsfcy 1

** ftl fo"k; dk ikB Lrqr ugha fd;k ml fo"k; dh ikB ;kstuk ij vk/kkfjr ekSf[kd ijh{kk

*** nsf[k;s Vsfcy 3 esa ls dksbZ ,d

**** bl dk;Z dks kstsDV ds Lo:Ik esa laiUu dj fyf[kr :Ik esa fy;k tk;sA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

v   Vsfcy 1 & ui= 5 ,oa 6 fk{k.k fof/k

Lkewg I ui= iape

Lkewg II ui= "k"Be

fk{k.k fof/k

fk{k.k fof/k

I fgUnh

I ukxfjd kkL=

II vaxzsth

II vFkZkkL=

III laLr

III lkekftd foKku

IV mnwZ

IV xf.kr

V bfrgkl

V thofoKku

VI Hkwxksy

VI lkekftd v/;;u

VII foKku

 

VIII jlk;ufoKku

 

IX HkkSfrdfoKku

 

 

Vsfcy&2 ui= & lIre

vfrfjDr fofk"Vdj.k dksbZ ,d

1

f;kRed vuqlU/kku

2

kS<+ fk{kk

3

Lkax.kd fk{kk

4

Lkqnwj fk{kk

5

nwjLFk fk{kk

6

kSf{kd kklu] laxBu ,oa Ik;Zos{k.k

7

kSf{kd rduhdh

8

Ik;kZoj.k fk{kk

9

funsZku ,oa ijkekZ

10

LokLF; ,oa kkhjhfjd fk{k

11

Ekkiu ,oa ewY;kadu

12

vukSipkfjd fk{kk

13

tula[;k fk{kk

14

fofk"V fk{kk

15

tutkrh; vkfnoklh fk{kk

16

ewY; fk{kk

17

L=h fk{kk

 

v   Vsfcy&3 dk;kZuqHko dksbZ ,d

1- f"k

2- ckxokuh ,oa m|kufo|k

3- flykbZ ,oa d<+kbZ

4- iqLrdksa dh ftYncUnh

5- drkbZ ,oa cqukbZ

6- fp=dyk ,oa isf.Vax

7- laxhr

8- u`R;

9- f[kykSuk fuekZ.k

10- dk"B dyk

 

ewY;akdu ;kstuk

Hkkx & Fke lS)kfUrd

-

Hkkx

ui=

Ckkg~; ewY;kadu

;ksx

 

 

 

Ikw.kkZad

U;wurkad

 

1

mnh;eku Hkkjr esa fk{kk

Fke

100

36

100

2

f'k{kk euksfoKku

f}rh;

100

36

100

3

Ekk/;fed fk{kk ,oa fk{kdh; dk;Z

Rk`rh;

100

36

100

4

kSf{kd rduhdh ds ro ,oa cU/ku

prqFkZ

100

36

100

5

fk{k.k fof/k I

Ikape

100

36

100

6

fk{k.k fof/k II

"k"B

100

36

100

7

vfrfjDr fofk"Vhdj.k fo"k;

lIre

100

36

100

 

;ksx

 

 

 

700

 

 

Hkkx & f}rh; k;ksfxd

-

Hkkx

Ikw.kkZd

U;wurkad

ewY;kadu

1

Lkw{e v/;kiu

60

24

vkUrfjd

2

fk{k.k fof/k I

50

20

vkUrfjd

3

fk{k.k fof/k II

50

20

vkUrfjd

4

ikBksa dk fujh{k.k ,oa laxks"Bh

10

04

vkUrfjd

5

Lkekykspuk ikB R;sd fo"k; fk{k.k ls ,d&,d

20

08

vkUrfjd

6

okf"kZd ikB fk{k.k O;kogkfjd Fke vFkok f}rh; fo"k; esa ls fdlh ,d fo"k; ij Lrqrhdj.k nksuksa fo"k;ks ij ikB;kstuk fyf[kr :Ik esa Lrqr djuk gksxh

80

32

vkUrfjd ,oa ckg; ijh{kd

7

ikB fk{k.k ekSf[kd okf"kZd ijh{kk ftl fo"k; dk ikB Lrqr ugha fd;k gS] ml ij vk/kkfjr

40

16

vkUrfjd ,oa ckg; ijh{kd

8

dk;kZuqHko

20

08

vkUrfjd

9

euksfoKku ;ksx

10

04

vkUrfjd

10

Lkkeqnkf;d dk;Z@lektlsok

10

04

vkUrfjd

11

ikB~; lgxkeh xfrfof/k;k

10

04

vkUrfjd

12

nk l=h; dk;Z@ lS)kfUrd 'ui=ksa ij vk/kkfjr

70

28

vkUrfjd

13

l=kUr Ikjh{kk

70

28

vkUrfjd

 

 

 

 

 

1-                      fk{k.kfFk;ksa dks vko;drkuqlkj nks fk{k.k fof/k;ksa dk p;u Vsfcy aekd 1 ds vuqlkj djuk gksxk A R;sd lewg ls ,d

2-                      fk{k.kkfFk;ksa dks vko;drkuqlkj Vsfcy aekd 2 ls ,d vfrfjDr fofk"Vhdj.k fo"k; p;u djuk gksxkA

3-                      fk{k.kkfFZk;ksa dks vko;drkuqlkj Vsfcy aekd 3 ls dksbZ ,d kV dk p;u djuk gksxkA

4-                      fk{k.kkfFk;ksa dks Hkkx 1 lS)kfUrd ,oa Hkkx 2 k;ksfxd esa i`Fkd&i`Fkd mRrh.kZ gksuk pkfg,A Fke Hkkx lS)kfUrd esa mRrh.kZ gksus ds fy, U;wure mRrh.kkZad 36 frkr ,oa Hkkx f}rh; k;ksfxd esa U;wure mRrh.kkZad 40 frkr fu/kkZfjr j[kk x;k gSA Js.kh dk fu/kkZj.k lS)kfUrd ,oa k;ksfxd esa i`Fkd & i`Fkd gksxk A

Fke Js.kh esa U;wure mRrh.kkZadksa dk frkr 60 frkr ;k blls vf/kd vad ,oa f}rh; Js.kh esa U;wure mRrh.kkZad 48 frkr ;k blls vf/kd ,oa r`rh; Js.kh esa U;wure mRrh.kkZad 40 ;k mlls vf/kd vad vftZr djus dh ik=rk gksxhA

5-                      Vsfcy ekad 2 ls ui= 7 ds fy, dksbZ ,d fo"k; vfrfjDr fofk"Vhdj.k dk p;u djuk gksxkA bl gsrq bPNqd fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k rFkk fo"k; foks"kKksa dh miyC/rk ds ns[krs gq, fo"k; p;u dks ego fn;k tk,xkA

6-                      R;sd lewg esa ls p;fur fo"k; ds 15 & 15 ikB dqy 30 ikB dk d{kk v/;kiu djuk gksxk ftldk fyf[kr vfHkys[k ckg~; ekSf[kd ijh{kk ds le; izLrqr djuk vfuok;Z gksxkA

7-                      Vsfcy ekad 3 ls dksbZ ,d dk;kZuqHko dk p;u djuk gkssxkA

8-                      euksfoKku fo"k; ds U;wure 5 iz;ksx ijh{k.k djuk ,oa izk;ksfxd iqfLrdk esa fy[k dj fjdkMZ j[kuk gksxkA

 

 

Fke ui=

mnh;eku Hkkjr esa fk{kk

mn~ns; &

fk{kd] fk{k.kkFkhZ esa ;ksX;rk ds fodkl ds fy, &

1-                  vk/kqfud Hkkjrh; lekt esa nkkZfud] lkekftd vkSj lkaLfrd ijEijkvksa ij vk/kkfjr fopkjksa vkSj ewY;ksa dks le>us dh ;ksX;rk dk fodkl djukA

2-                  Hkkjr dh fk{kk esa Hkkjrh; laoS/kkfud ko/kkuksa ls ifjfpr djkukA

3-                  Hkkjrh; lkekftd lajpuk dh tfVyrk] orZeku kSf{kd leL;k;sa vkSj lkekftd iqufuZekZ.k esa fk{kk dh Hkwfedk ls ifjfpr djkukA

4-                  jkT; }kjk lapkfyr fofHkUu laLFkkvksa dh Hkwfedk ls ifjfpr djkukA

5-                  Ik;kZoj.k lajpuk] tula[;k fu;U=.k vkSj fookkfUr dh Hkwfedk dh tkudkjh nsukA

bdkbZ & 1

gekjk orZeku~ vkSj Hkfo"; &

v ledkyhu n`; &

       Hkkjrh; lkekftd O;oLFkk] bldk <kpk Lo:Ik] tkfr] vyxko vkSj xfrkhyrkA

       Lkekt dks pykus okys dkjd & lkekftd] vkfFkZd] jktuSfrd vkSj rduhdhA

       ,drkoknh vkSj vyxkooknh rkdrsa] jk"Vh; mUufr] lekurk] ?kfu"Brk vkSj ,drk ds lUnHkZ esa A

c fodklksUeq[k Hkfo"; & Hkkjrh; lUnHkZ esa

       vk/kqfudhdj.k & ladYiuk vkSj ifjHkk"kk

       vk/kqfudhdj.k dh vko;drk vkSj ekx

       yksdrU=] lektokn vkSj vf/kuk;dokn dk ewY;] fk{kk esa vk/kqfudhdj.k ds fy, fodklksUeq[k funsZkuA

 

bdkbZ & 2 & fk{kk vkSj lekt

v fk{kk & fk{kk dk vFkZ vkSj mn~ns;]

c fk{kk ds mn~ns;ksa dks Hkkfor djus okys dkjd & nkkZfud] lkekftd] lkaLfrd] jktuSfrd vkSj vkfFkZdA

l fk{kk ds lk/ku & 1 ?kj] fo|ky;] leqnk; vkSj lapkjA

fo|ky; & leqnk; dk;Z esa lEcU/kA

fk{kk & lkekftd laLFkk ds :Ik esa A

n fk{kk ds fodkl esa & CABE / N.C.E.R.T./ N.C.T.E. rFkk S.C.E.R.T. dh HkwfedkA

 

bdkbZ & 3 kSf{kd iqu%fuekZ.k

 

kSf{kd ;ksxnku rFkk mudk orZeku lUnHkZ &

1 egkRek xk/kh

2 johUnzukFk VSxksj] Lokeh foosdkuUn

bdkbZ & 4 fk{kk vkSj lkekftd ifjorZu

v lkekftd ifjorZu dk vFkZ rFkk Hkkfor djus okys roA

c lkekftd ifjorZu dh fr & ijEijkxr Hkkjr rFkk vk/kqfudrk ds lUnHkZ esaA

mUufrkhy okafNr lkekftd ifjorZu esa fk{kk dh HkwfedkA

bdkbZ & 5 & kSf{kd voljksa dh lekurk

v fk{kk ds voljksa dh lekurk ds fy, laoS/kkfud ko/kkuA

c fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, lekurk ds volj dk vFkZ kFkfed] ek/;fed vkSj mPp kSf{kd Lrjksa ij f;kUo;u vkSj lQyrkA

l lekurk ds volj ds mUu;u ds mik;A

n foks"k lewg dks lUrq"V djus ds fy, kSf{kd dk;Zeksa dh vko;drk] lekt esa oafpr lewg] efgyk vkSj v{ke] fo|ky; vkSj leqnk; dh HkwfedkA

b lkekftd ,oa jk"Vh; leL;kvksa ds fr tkx:drk ds fy, fk{kkA

 

bdkbZ & 6 Ik;kZoj.k voLFkk & LFkkuh; vkSj Hkwe.Myh;

Ik;kZoj.k gkl ds dkj.k

Ik;kZoj.k dk laj{k.k o lqj{kk

fr ds vuq:Ik thuk lh[kukA

Ik;kZoj.k ij tula[;k ds ncko dk HkkoA

thouLrj vkSj lkekU; leqnk; ij tula[;k dk nckoA

 

 

bdkbZ & 7

fo|ky; leqnk; lEcU/k

fo|ky;] ?kj vkSj leqnk; dh ijLij fuHkZjrk] leqnk; ds lkFk dk;Z djuk vkSj le>ukA

 

nk dk;Z &

1 fiNM+h cLrh dk voyksdu ,oa vfk{kk ds dkj.kksa dh [kkstA

2 fiNM+h cLrh esa fk{kk ds fodkl ds fy, ;kstuk cukukA

3 mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ij kkyk fodkl lfefr ds dk;Z ,oa mi;ksfxrk dk v/;;u djukA

4 lekt ds kSf{kd ,oa lkekftd fodkl ds {ks= esa Lora= dk;Z djus okyh ,stsUlh dk v/;;uA

 

 

 

 

 

lanHkZ iqLrdsa &

1 vkuan lh-,y- & Teacher and Eduction in Emerging India, NCERT, New Delhi.

(2)               Population Education in Classrooms, NCERT, New Delhi.

(3)            HkVukxj ,l- & vk/kqfud Hkkjrh; fk{kk vkSj mldh leL;k,sa] yk;y cqd fMiks] esjB

(4)               Chakravarti M. Gandhian Dimension in Education, Daya Publishing House, New Delhi.

(5)               Mani R.S. Eduacation Ideals of Gandhi and Tagore, New Book Society, New Delhi.

(6)               Ministry of Human Resource Development :

(7)               Mohanty Jaganath : Indian Education in Emerging Society, Sterling Publishing, New Delhi.

(8)            Ikk.Ms] ;keLo:Ik & fk{kk ds nkkZfud vk;ke lkekftd kkL=h; i`"BHkwfe] fouksn iqLrd eafnj] vkxjkA

(9)               Ikklh ih-ds- ,oa lkgw ih-ds- & Future studies, National Psychological Corporation, Agra.

(10)      IkkBd ,.M R;kxh & fk{kk ds lkekU; fl)kUr fouksn iqLrd eafnj] vkxjkA

(11)           ikBd ih-Mh- ,oa R;kxh & I.S.D.

(12)                   Pushpa S.P. and Others : Sociological Foundations of Education in Control Parary India Dhanpat Rao and Sons, Delhi.

(13)              j?kqoakh ,l- ,oa j?kqokh & i;kZoj.k rFkk nw"k.k fgUnh xzUFk vdkneh] HkksikyA

(14)              lDlsuk ,u-vkj- Lo:Ik & fk{kk ds lkekU; fl)kUr ykW;y cqd fMiks] esjBA

(15)              kekZ Mh- ,y- & Hkkjrh; fk{kk lekt] ykW;y cqd fMiks] esjBA

(16)                   Sing B.P. Aims of Education in India Ajanta Publication, New Delhi.

 

 

 

 

f}rh; ui=

f'k{kk euksfoKku

 

mn~ns; &

 

fk{kd fk{k.kkFkhZ dks n{k cukuk ftlls &

1-                  og fk{kk euksfoKku dh fof/k;ksa o rduhfd;ksa dks le> ldsA

2-                  og vf/kxe@lh[kuk dh vo/kkj.kk] fl)kUr o muds f;kUo;u dks le> ldsA

3-                  og fdkksjksa dh foks"krkvksa o leL;kvksa dks le> ldsA

4-                  og O;fDr dh vo/kkj.kk] dqlek;kstu ds dkj.k rFkk muds fuokj.k dks le> ldsA

5-                  og fofk"V ckydksa dh vko;drkvksa dh igpku dj ldsA

6-                  og ckydksa ds ekufld LokLF; dks le> lds rFkk fk{kk esa mlds f;kUo;u dks le> ldsA

7-                  og lkekftd xR;kRedrk rFkk bl lUnHkZ esa fk{kd dh Hkwfedk dks le> ldsA

8-                  og ckydksa esa O;fDrxr fofHkUurkvksa dh o`fk rFkk dkj.kksa dks le> ldsA

9-                  og ekxZnkZu ds fy, Lo;a esa dkSky fodflr dj ldsA

10-              og fofHkUu dkj dh lkaf[;dh rduhdh dks le>dj mUgsa mi;ksx djus dk dkSky fodflr dj ldsA

 

 

 

 

 

 

ikB~;e

1-                  fk{kk euksfoKku dh fr ,oa Hkwfedk %& vFkZ] fr] fk{kk euksfoKku dk Js;] fk{kk euksfoKku dh egRrk] ek/;fed Lrj ds fk{kdksa ds fy, vf/kxedrkZ dk fodkl & rFkk lek;kstu ds lUnHkZ esa le>us ds fy,A

2-                  vf/kxedrkZ dh vfHko`f) %& vfHko`f) ,oa fodkl dh vo/kkj.kk] lkekU; fl)kUr] fnkk vkSj fodkl ds Lrj] fodklkRed f;k;sa fdkksjkoLFkk ds lUnHkZ esa] fodkl dks Hkkfor djus okys dkjd fdkksjkoLFkk dh vko;drkvksa rFkk foks"krkvksa esa laKkukRed fodkl fi;kts] laosxkRed fodkl dksg~ycxZ

3-                  vf/kxedrkZ ,oa O;fDr &

vFkZ] egRrk rFkk O;fDrxr fofHkUurkvksa dk v/;;u

O;fDrxr fofHkUurk dks mRiUUk djus okys dkjd &

mRifRr fo"k;d] euksoSKkfud o Ik;kZoj.k lEcU/kh

O;fDrxr fofHkUurk ds lUnHkksZa esa & cqf)] lgukhyrk] vfHko`fRr] miyfC/k o #fp

4- vf/kxe@lh[kuk %&

vf/kxe dh vo/kkj.kk & vf/kxe] ifjiDork vkSj fodkl ]vf/kxe ds fl)kUr o kSf{kd mi;ksfxrk] lEc) frf;k vuqcU/ku isoyo] f;k lwr vuqcU/ku fLduj] vUrn`Zf"V dk fl)kUr] fpUru ,oa leL;k laokn fof/k MsfoM CgkW; lkgp;Z & lekurk] foijhrrk] lafy"Vrk] dkj.k vkSj Hkko }kjk fr:irk ,oa rknkRehdj.k vfHksj.kk % vFkZ o fof/k;k] vkReokLrohdj.k dk fl)kUrA

Le`fr & rkRdkfyd Le`fr] nh?kZdkfyd Le`fr] Hkkfor djus okyh ifjfLFkfr;kWa vkSj fof/k;k] vojks/k] i`"BksUeq[k vojks/k rFkk vxzksUeq[k vojks/kA

vf/kxe LFkkukUrj.k & vo/kkj.kk] fl)kUr ,oa f;kUo;u]

vf/kxe dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd & fo|ky;] x`g rFkk leqnk;

 

 

5- d{kk lewg vkSj lewg f;k &

Lkewg xfrkhyrk] d{kk lewg dh lajpuk ,oa foks"krk;sa] lkekftd ,oa O;fDrxr vUr%lEcU/k] lektuhfr] lewg dkjA

6-                  vf/kxedrkZ dk O;fDrRo ,oa lek;kstu

O;fDrRo dkjksa dh vo/kkj.kk] dkjd] mikxe] O;fDrRo dk vkdyu % {ksi.kfof/k;k] fujh{k.k] lk{kkRdkj] ifjlqfp;k] lek;kstu dh vo/kkj.kk ,oa f;k;sa Hkkfor djus okys dkjd] lqj{kkRed f;k

7-                  vf/kxedrkZvksa dh foks"k vko;drkvksa esa lgk;rk ,oa mipkjkRed mik;]

fofk"V vko;drkvksa okys vf/kxedrkZvksa dh igpku] dfBukbZ;k ,oa mRiUu gksus okyh leL;k;saA

kkjhfjd v{kerk] ekufld foyEcrk] frHkkoku] fiNM+s ckydA

Lkkekftd laosxkRed leL;k;sa & Ckkyvijk/k] d{kkiyk;u] iyk;u] fnokLoIuA

8-                  kjfEHkd kSf{kd lkaf[;dh &

dsUnzh; o`fk ds ekiu rFkk mi;ksfxrk] fopyukhyrk ds ekiuA

lglEcU/k& vuqe ,oa vUrj fof/k

;ksx &

fuEu ;ksxksa dk kklu] vadhdj.k vkSj foys"k.k &

1-              cqf) ijh{k.k

2-              #fp vuqlwph

3-              O;fDrRo ijh{k.k

4-              Lk`tukRed ijh{k.k

5-              miyfC/k ijh{k.k

6-              lek;kstu vuqlwph

7-              vf/kxe dh lexz ,oa vkafkd fof/k;ksa dk rqyukRed v/;;uA

8-              fi;kts ds f;k lEcU/kh ijh{k.kksa dk kkluA

 

l=h; dk;Z &

1-              fofk"V ckydksa dh vkdka{kkvksa rFkk vko;drkvksa dk losZ{k.k djukA

2-              xzkeh.k ,oa fiNM+h cfLr;ksa ds ckydksa ds O;fDr freku dk v/;;u djukA

3-              leL;kRed ckyd dk thou bfrgklA

4-              lektfefr rduhdh }kjk d{kk lewg dh lajpuk dk v/;;u djukA

lanHkZ &

1.             Bhatia, H.R. Element of Educational Psychology Orient Longman Ltd. Bombay.

2.             Chauhan, S.S. Advance Educational Psychology Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi

3.             Chauhan, S.S. Psychology of Adalescence, Allied Publishers, New Delhi.

4.             Garrett, H.E. Statistics in Psychology and Education, Vakils, Feffer and Simo Ltd. Bombay.

5.             Hurlock, E.B. Adolescent Development, Mc. Grew Hill, New York.

6.            dfiy] ,p-ds- & lkaf[;dh ds ewy ro] fouksn iqLrd Hk.Mkj vkxjkA

7.            dqyJs"B] ,e-ih- fk{kk euksfoKku

8.             Mangal, S.K. Psychological Education Prakash Brother, Ludhiana.

9.             Mathur, S.S. Educational Psycholgy, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra.

10.       ekFkqj] ,e-,l- & fk{kk euksfoKku] yk;y cqd fMiks] esjB

11.       f=ikBh ,l-,u- frHkk vkSj lqtukRedrk] eSfDefy;u da-] ckEcsA

12.       Hkkoh fk{k.k

 

 

 

 

Rk`rh; ui=

Ekk/;fed fk{kk vkSj fk{kdh; dk;Z

mn~ns; &

       e/;nsk dh fofHkUu k;kstukvksa ls Nk= v/;kidksa dks ifjfpr djkukA

       ek/;fed fk{kk ds lUnHkZ esa Hkkjrh; fk{kk dh ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe dh le> fodflr djukA

       ek/;fed fk{kk ds mn~ns; rFkk {ks= dh le> fodflr djukA

       vuqnskkRed rduhdksa dh vo/kkj.kkk Li"V djukA

       O;kolkf;d uSfrdrk ds fr tkx:drk fodflr djukA

ikB~;e &

1-                  ek/;fed fk{kk ds mn~ns; &

ek/;fed fk{kk ds lkekU; mn~ns; vkSj kIr mn~ns;] LorU=rk kfIr ds Ikpkr~ ek/;fed fk{kk dk fodkl

ek/;fed fk{kk ds ikB~;e dh foks"krk, vkSj ikB~;e fodkl dh f;kA

2-                  fk{kd dh Hkwfedk vkSj fk{kk dh jk"Vh; i)fr O;oLFkk lh[kus esa lqfo/kk nku djus esa fk{kd dh Hkwfedk] ikB~;e f;kUo;u esa fk{kd dh Hkwfedk] Hkfo"; dh pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djus gsrq rS;kj djus esa fk{kd dh Hkwfedk] fo|ky; vkSj leqnk; ds e/; lEcU/k cukus esa fk{kd dh Hkwfedk] vukSipkfjd vkSj kS<+ fk{kk esa fk{kd dh HkwfedkA

3- lEs"k.k f;k

fk{kd vf/kxe esa lEs"k.k f;k dk vFkZ ,oa foks"krk,A

fk{k.k lEs"k.k f;k ds :Ik esa] O;fDrxr vkSj lkewfgd lEs"k.k] lEs"k.k f;k dks Hkkfor djus okys dkjdA

vk/kkjHkwr fk{k.k dkSky Lrkouk ikB] O;ogk;Z :Ik esa vuqnskkRed mn~ns; ys[ku] ikB lekiu] uksRrj] mnh;eku ifjorZu] O;k[;k dkSky] ;keiV ys[kuA

4- ikB~; lgxkeh f;kdyki

fo|ky; esa ikB~;lkexzh f;kvksa dk LFkku] ikB~; lgxkeh f;kvksa ds laxBu ds fl)kUr] ikB~; lgxkeh f;kvksa ds dkj] Hkze.k] Ik;ZVu] lkewfgd okn&fookn vkfn] f;kdykiksa dh O;oLFkkA

5- lalk/kuksa dk cU/k &

fo|ky; cU/k dh vo/kkj.kk vkSj {ks=] e-- esa kSf{kd cU/k dk pfyr Lo:Ik] ekuoh; lalk/ku fo|kFkhZ] LVkQ vkSj leqnk;] HkkSfrd lalk/ku &

;ksxkkyk] iqLrdky;] [ksy dk eSnku] fo|ky; Hkou] QuhZpj] rduhdh midj.k] fo|ky; Q.M vkfn] d{kk d{k cU/kuA

6- vuqlU/kku] ;ksx vkSj ifj;kstuk, &

f;kRed vuqlU/kku dk vFkZ] {ks= rFkk ego] fo|ky; vuqlU/kku d{kk d{k esa leL;k dh igpku] f;kRed vuqlU/kku }kjk fofk"V leL;kvksa dk lek/kku] fu;kstu lh[kuk&fl[kkuk iSdst vkSj v/;kid dkSkyA

7- vuqnskkRed rduhdh &

vuqnskkRed rduhdh dh vo/kkj.kk] fk{k.k ds lkekU; fl)kUr vkSj fk{k.k lw=] fk{k.k freku & i`PNk ijh{k.k freku] e`nqy vkSj dBksj mikxe] tulapkj ek/;e dk p;uA lf; vf/kxe fof/k ,-,y-,e mn~ns'; f;k o egoA ,-,y-,e- ds vUrxZr fo"k; vuqlkj fof/k;kA

8- ewY;kadu &

vo/kkj.kk] {ks= rFkk kSf{kd f;k esa ewY;kadu dk egRo] pfyr ewY;kadu i)fr dh lekykspuk] lrr vkSj lexz ewY;kadu] f;k ,oa mRifRr ewY;kadu] ekSf[kd] fyf[kr ,oa fu"iknu ewY;kadu fk{kd }kjk fufeZr miyfC/k ijh{k.k ds lUnHkZ esa dlkSVh lUnHkZ ijh{k.kA

 

9- O;kolkf;d uSfrdrk &

fk{k.k ds fy, O;kolkf;d uSfrdrk dh vo/kkj.kk] uSfrdrk ds vk;ke] e-- dh vkpkj lafgrk dk;Z uSfrdrkA

 

 

nk dk;Z &

1-                  ek/;fed fo|ky; i=ksikf/k dh ewyHkwr i)fr dk vkcf.Vr le; rFkk fn, x, fo"k;ksa ds vf/kHkkj ds lUnHkZ esa v/;;u djukA

2-                  20 fo|kkfFkZ;ksa ds fy, d{kk f;kvksa ds lapkyu dh ;kstuk rS;kj djuk tks vf/kxe esa lgk;d dh Hkwfedk fuHkk,A

3-                  Lkeqnk; ds fdUgh nks cPpksa vkSj ,d o;Ld dks lk{kj cukus dh ;kstuk rS;kj djuk vkSj mldk f;kUo;uA

4-                  ikp ikB ;kstuk, ;k lw{e fk{k.k ikB ;kstuk, rS;kj djuk rFkk ikp fk{k.k dkSkyksa dks fodflr djukA

5-                  kSf{kd {ks=h; Hkze.k@i;ZVu dh ;kstuk ,oa mldk laxBu lehiLFk {ks=ksa dk mldh fjiksVZ cukukA

6-                  lEHkkxh; ftyk ,oa foHkkxh; kSf{kd dk;kZy;ksa dk Hkze.k djuk rFkk bu kSf{kd cU/k frekuksa dk v/;;u djuk] fjiksVZ rS;kj djukA

7-                  fo|ky;hu ;kstukvksa ls lEcUf/kr ,d f;kRed vuqla/kku rS;kj djuk ,oa mldk f;kUo;uA

8-                  laLFkkxr ;kstukvksa ds fy, ,d ifj;kstuk rS;kj djukA

9-                  ,d ikB ;kstuk rS;kj dj mls PNk fk{k.k freku ds }kjk i<+kukA

10-              fo|ky;hu fo"k; ls lEcUf/kr fk{kd fufeZr nks miyfC/k ijh{k.k rS;kj djukA

11-              orZeku~ esa pfyr fpfdRlk ,oa bathfu;fjax tSls O;olk;ksa dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, O;kolkf;d ewY;ksa dks fy[kuk ,oa vuqdj.kh; ewY;ksa dk fk{k.k esa vH;kl djukA

 

lanHkZ iqLrdsa &

1-                  vxzoky] ts-lh- ubZ fk{kkuhfr] Hkkr dkku] fnYyhA

2-                  Bhatnagar, R.P. ; Technology of Teaching, Internation Publishing House, Meerut.

3-                  HkVukxj] lqjsk] fk{kk dh leL;k;sa] ykW;y cqd fMiks] esjB

4-                  Hkw"k.k] kSysUnz rFkk vfuydqekj] fk{k.k rduhdh] fouksn iqLrd efUnj] vkxjkA

5-                  Ekkuo lalk/ku fodkl eU=ky;] jk"Vh; fk{kk uhfr] 1986] ubZ fnYyh

6-                  lQk;k j?kqukFk] Ldwy laxBu] /kuirjk; ,.M lUl] fnYyhA

7-                    Sampath, K. Introducation to Educational Technology, Sterling Published, New Delhi.

8-                    Saxena N.R. Swaroop, Shikshan Kala Evam Paddahyan, Lyall Book Depot, Meerut.

9-                    Saxena & Sharma Secondary Education and Teacher Functions, Radha Publishers Mandir, Agra.

10-                 Sharma R.A. : Educational Technology, International Publishing House, Meerut.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kSf{kd rduhdh ds ro ,oa cU/ku

prqFkZ u i=

mn~ns; &

1-                  vk/kqfud kSf{kd O;kogkfjd xfrfof/k;ksa esa fof/k;ksa dh Hkwfedkvksa ds lexz Lo:Ik ls ifjfpr djkukA

2-                  vuqnsfkr xfrfof/k;ksa esa lq/kkj gsrq fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks miyC/k fofHkUu rduhdh ;ksxksa ls voxr djkukA

3-                  fk{kk esa oSKkfud cU/ku dh Hkwfedk ds lexz ds :Ik dks le>us esa fk{kd dh lgk;rk djukA

4-                  vuqnsfkr vkSj laLFkkxr cU/ku dks Hkkokkyh cukus ds fy, fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa esa vko;d dkSkyksa dks fodflr djukA

5-                  kjEfHkd rhu Lrjksa ij fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds ekxZnkZu ds fy, vko;d] O;olkf;d dkSkyksa dks fodflr djuk ,oa fk{kk lafgrk ls ifjfpr djkukA

 

ikB~;e

bdkbZ & 1

       kSf{kd fof/k dh ifjHkk"kk] dBksj mikxe vkSj e`nqy mikxe fof/k;ksa esa vUrj] vk/kqfud kSf{kd vH;kl esa mudh HkwfedkA

       dBksj mikxe fof/k;k % egoiw.kZ Hkkx ,oa muds vuq;ksx vks-,p-ih-] fLFkj ,oa xfrkhy kstDVj] n`;&JO; kekf.kd midj.k] nwjnkZu] lax.kd uohu fof/k;kWa tSls bZ&esy] b.VjusV vkfnA

       vkO;wgksa dk ;ksx mnkgj.k %& VsyhdkWUQzsflax lw{e fk{k.k] vfHkfer vuqnsku] lh-,-vkbZ- cqf) Hkk"kk ;ksxkykA

 

 

bdkbZ & 2

 

       vk/kqfud fof/k;ksa ds fy, euksoSKkfud ;ksx % ,Mej Msy ds vuqHko] f=dks.k] cgqbUfnz; vuqnsku dk mi;ksxA

       vfHkfer vuqnskkRed lkexzh dk fodkl &

J`a[kyk vuqnsku] kk[kh; vuqnsku] ijh{kkdj.k ,oa oS/krk vkfnA

 

bdkbZ & 3

 

       funsZku dk vFkZ] funsZku ds fl)kUrksa dk Li"Vhdj.k ijkekZ dh vo/kkj.kk & funsZfkr ,oa vfunsZfkr inkFkZA

       fo|ky; laxBu funsZku lsok] fo|ky; funsZku lsok ds fy, lkeqnkf;d lalk/kuksa dk ;ksxA

       O;kolkf;d funsku lsok] O;kolkf;d lwpuk dsUnz] O;kolkf;d xksf"B;k

       O;fDrxr funsZku & fdlh fofk"V {ks= esa foks"kKrk ds fy, vko;d funsZku lsok ds lUnHkZ esaa

 

bdkbZ & 4

 

       fk{kk esa cU/k dk vFkZ] O;fDr lalk/ku ,oa lkexzh dk cU/ku] kSf{kd lw=ikr fufgrkFkZA

       ikB~;e cU/ku] ikB~; lgxkeh f;kvksa dk cU/ku] fo|ky;hu vuqkklu cU/ku] HkkSfrd lalk/kuksa dk cU/kuA

       lalFkkxr miyfC/k;ksa dh laf{kIr :ijs[kk fodflr djukA

 

bdkbZ & 5

 

       laLFkkxr miyfC/k;ksa dk ewY;kadu djuk] fof/k;k %&

fo|kFkhZ ewY;kadu] fk{kd ewY;kadu laLFkkxr miyfC/k ewY;kaduA

       fk{kd ewY;kadu dh fof/k;k & Nk= jsfVax dk ;ksx] lkFkh v/;kidksa }kjk jsfVax] fujh{kdksa }kjk jsfVax] leqnk; ewY;kadu e fu/kZj.k] laLFkkxr lq/kkj ds fy, e fu/kkZj.kA

       fo|ky; fk{kk esa mRrjnkf;Ro] mRrjnkf;Ro vkdyu dh fof/k;kA

       o`fRrtU; ekudksa dk ;ksx ,oa uSfrdrkA

 

nk dk;Z &

1-                  fk{k.k@fufpr vof/k i=@ifjppkZ

2-                  lkVosvj dk fodkl & ikjnkhZ fp=@ih-,y-,e-@LykbM@fLIV@iVdFkk ;k :ijs[kkA

3-                  Lovuqnsfkr lkexzh dk fodkl] lgk;d .kkyh] vf/kxe isdst] eYVhehfM;k iSdstA

4-                  gkMZosvj cU/ku dh dk;ZkkykA

5-                  vYiO;;h@LofufeZr lkexzh dks rS;kj djukA

6-                  vks-,p-ih-@ohfM;ks fQYe@dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx djrs gq, ikB lapkfyr djukA

7-                  kSf{kd dj.k ij kks/k cU/k

8-                  laLFkkxr Lrj ij lsfeukj lapkfyr djukA

 

 

 

Reference

1.      Aggarwal J.C. Educatonal Technology Management and Eduction Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra 2

2.      Brown J.W. Lewis, P.B. & Harclereac : AV Instructional Technology Media and Methods, Mc Hills, New York.

3.      Davies I.K. The Management of Learning, Mc. Graw Hills, New York.

4.      Goel, D.R. Educational TV in India Organisation and Wilization, Unpublished Post Doctoral Thesis, M.S. University of Baroda.

5.      Jerone P.L. & Clarence M.W.: A Guide to Programmed Instruction, J. Willey & Sons, New York.

6.      Richmond W. Kenneth : The Concept of Educational Technology A Dialogue with Yours, London, Weldenfeld and Nicols, 1970.

7.      Sharma, R.A. Technology of Teaching, Meerut, Lyall Book Depot,
1986.

8.      Sharma R.A. Essential of Instruction of Technology R.Lall Book Depot, Meerut (U.P.)

9.      Sharma R.A. Educational Technology and Management R.Lall Book Depot, Meerut (U.P.)

10.  Saxena N.R. Swarup. Oberol S.C. Technology of Teaching. R.Lall Book Depot, Meerut (U.P.)

11.  Singh P. Cybernetic Approach to Teaching : The Progress Education Pune, May, 1984.

12.  Taber J.J. Glaser R. & Schasffer, H.N. Learning and Programmed Instruction, Addition Waler Reading Massachusetts, 1965.

13.  Taneja V.R. Fundamental of Education Technology
International Publishers, Chandigarh.

14.  William D. Bontwe : Using Mass Media in School, New York, Appteton Century Crops, 1962.

 

 

 

fk{k.k fof/k & Fke

iUpe ui=

fgUnh Hkk"kk fk{k.k

mn~ns; &

fk{kd fk{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dh ;ksX;rk ds fodkl ds fy, &

       fgUnh Hkk"kk ds v/;;u v/;kiu esa Hkk"kk;h {kerkvksa ,oa Hkkokhyrk dk fodklA

       Hkk"kk;h {kerkvksa ,oa Hkkokhyrk dk fodklA

       cgqHkk"kh; lekt esa Fke Hkk"kk ds :Ik esa fgUnh Hkk"kk dk leh{kkRed v/;;uA

       Hkkjr esa fgUnh dh Hkwfedk dks le>uk rFkk nsk ds kkys; ikB~;e esa mldk LFkku fu/kkZj.k djrs gq, fgUnh Hkk"kk ds KkukRed dkSkyksa dk fodkl djukA

       fgUnh Hkk"kk ds fk{k.k vf/kxe ds fr vfHk#fp ,oa sj.kk mRiUu djukA

       leqfpr Hkk"kk;h vknrksa dks fodflr djrs gq, muesa vUrj] f;kRed LoewY;kadu dh {kerk fodflr djukA

       nsoukxjh fyfi vkSj mlds Li"V mPpkj.k ls lEcUf/kr leqfpr Kku nku djukA

       fgUnh Hkk"kk ds fy, vYi O;;h lgk;d fk{k.k lkefxz;ksa dk fuekZ.k djuk] ftlls Nk=ksa dh Hkk"kk;h vkqf);ksa dk mipkj fd;k tk ldsA

 

 

ikB~;p;kZ &

1-                  ek/;fed Lrj ij fgUnh fk{k.k ds mn~ns; &

fgUnh Hkk"kk dk lkekU; ifjp;] fodkl ,oa ewY;kadu] fgUnh cksfy;ksa ;k ekud fgUnhA Hkkjr esa ekr`Hkk"kk jk"VHkk"kk ,oa lEidZ Hkk"kk ds :Ik esa fgUnh dh HkwfedkA Fke ,oa f}rh; Hkk"kk ds :Ik esa ek/;fed Lrj ij fgUnh fk{k.k ds mn~ns;A

2-                  fgUnh fk{k.k dh fof/k;k ,oa mikxe &

Hkk"kk vf/kxe esa LokHkkfod ,oa v/;kfRed kkfDr;kA fgUnh fk{k.k esa ;ksx ,oa vH;kl dk egoA fgUnh fk{kd ds xq.k ,oa HkwfedkA fgUnh v/;kid }kjk Hkk"kk ds fofHkUu vaxksa dk lkisf{kd lEcU/k rFkk fofHkUu fk{k.k lw=ksa dk mi;ksxA

3-                     Hkk"kk;h dkSkyksa dk fk{k.k & Jo.k & okpu] ys[ku ,oa iBu dkSky &

kCnkoyh] orZuh ,oa mPpkj.k fk{k.kA x| & fk{k.k mn~ns;] v/;kiu] fof/k;k ,oa ikB;kstuk fuekZ.k] i| fk{k.k&mn~ns;] v/;kiu fof/k;k] ,oa ikB ;kstuk fuekZ.kA O;kdj.k fk{k.k & mn~ns;] v/;kiu fof/k;k ,oa ikB ;kstuk fuekZ.kA fuca/k & fk{k.k & mn~ns; v/;kiu fof/k;k ,oa ikB ;kstuk fuekZ.kA fgUnh ikB ;kstukA 1 x| 2 i| 3 O;kdj.k 4 jpuk ;k fucu/kA

4-                  v/;;u vknrksa dk vkRehdj.k Hkk"kk O;ogkj Jo.k dk vocks/k & lquus vkSj le>us dk vH;klA cksyh tkus okyh fgUnh & kSfy;k ,oa dkj cyk?kkr ,oa vuqikr dk egoA lqurs gq, ewY;kadu djuk ;k Lej.kh; fcUnq cukukA

lEs"k.k dh vknrsa & okrkZyki] dFkksidFku] lgpj okpu] vfHku;u ,oa i|okpu esa Hkk"kk ds ekSf[kd :iksa dk mi;ksx] cyk?kkr esa vkjksg] vojksg dk ;ksxA

iBu dh vknrsa & fofHkUu mn~ns;ksa ;Fkk & v/;;u] lwpuk kIr djus rFkk ljljh fuxkg ls ns[kus ds fy, mi;qDr rFkk rhoz xfr ls okpuA

okpu dh vknrsa& ys[kd ds O;fDrRo] frRo ,oa kSyh okpuA y{;ksa] rdkasZ] rkfdZd lEcU/k] ifjHkk"kdksa lek/khdj.k] vkjs[kksa dks le>us ds fy, okpuA eSuqvy vkpkj lafgrk] pkVZ] vuqlwph ,oa fu;e] iqLrdksa dk okpuA

ys[ku dh vPNh vknrsa & ys[ku dh mUur ;kaf=dh ;Fkk orZuh & fojke fpUgksa dk ;ksx] gkfk;k NksM+uk] kh"kZd ,oa mikh"kZd js[kkadu] vkHkwf"kr okD; kCn la{ksi] dk ;ksx] dks"Bdksa dk ;ksx] i= dk xBu] kFkZuk&i= vkfnA fo"k; oLrq dk xBuA

5-                  ewY;kadu & ewY;kadu dh u;h fnkk,A lrr~ ,oa O;kid ewY;kaduA funkukRed] ijh{k.k] mipkjkRed ijh{k.k] ,oa mipkjkRed rduhdh] LoewY;kadu ,oa Lolakks/ku] vH;klA KkukRed] HkkokRed ,oa eu kkjhfjd {ks=ksa esa oLrqfu"B dkj ds ijh{k.k] fcUnqvksa dk ys[kuA vH;kl fofHkUu dkj] ijh{k.k lwph] ewY;kadu ,oa xfr vfHkys[kA

 

 

 

 

nk dk;Z &

1 ikB~;e dks bdkb;ksa esa ckVuk rFkk mUgsa ec) djukA

2 d{kk 9]10]11 vFkok 12 oha ds fy, fu/kkZfjr fdlh ,d fgUnh ikB~;iqLrd dk leh{kkRed v/;;uA

3 fgUnh fk{k.k ds fy, Hkk"kk lkexzh dk fuekZ.k djukA

4 vkdkkok.kh lkj.k ds fy, ikB ;kstuk rS;kj djukA

5 ui=ksa ,oa ijh{k.k & lkexzh dk fuekZ.k djukA

lUnHkZ iqLrdsa &

1 HkkbZ ;ksxsUnz thr & fgunh Hkk"kk fk{k.k & fouksn iqLrd Hk.Mkj] vkxjk

2 ds- {kf=; & ekr`Hkk"kk fk{k.k & fouksn iqLrd efUnj vkxjk

3 yky] je.k fcgkjh & fgUnh fk{k.k& jLrksxh ifCydsku] esjB

4 j?kqukFk lQk;k & fgUnh f'k{k.k fof/k & iatkc fdrkc ?kj] tkyU/kj

5 jktdqekjh 'kekZ & fgUnh f'k{k.k & jk/kk dk'ku efUnj] vkxjk

6 lkfo=h flag & fgUnh Hkk"kk f'k{k.k & ykW;y cqd fMiks] esjB

7 mek eaxy & fgUnh Hkk"kk f'k{k.k & vk;Z cqd fMiks] esjB

8 'kekZ ,.M 'kekZ] rh{kk] jhVk & fgUnh f'k{k.k & lkfgR; dk'ku] vkxj

9 nqcs] lR;ukjk;.k & fgUnh f'k{k.k & lkfgR; dk'ku] vkxj

 

 

 

 

Teaching of English
Objectives


To enable the teacher Trainees:


To attain efficiency and effectiveness in teaching and learning English Language.
1. To have a critical study of learning English as a second language in the
multilingual Indian society.
2. to understand the role of English in India and decide its place in the school

curriculum of Madhya Pradesh.
Improve English Language attainment and cognitive skills.
3. To be committed. Inspired and interested in teaching learning English.
4. To teach will skill using interactional mode to evaluate himself in pupils, to

inculcate right language habits, and
5. To devise learning materials for teaching English as second language and
remedy the errors that the pupils make.
Syllabus
1. Objectives of Teaching and Learning of English of Secondary Level.
Second Language Learning and Mother Tongue learning.
The Function of a Second Language in a Multilingual Society.
Role of English in India and its Place in the School Cirriculum.
The Curriculum of English in the Secondary School. Qualities and Role of the

English Teacher.
2. Methods and Approaches.
Grammar Cum Translation Method.
Direct Method.
Bilingual Method.
Structural Approach.
Communicative Approach.
3. Teaching of Skills.
Teaching Alphabets and Spelling.
Teaching Prose.
Teaching Poetry.
Teaching Grammar.
Teaching Composition
4. Inculcation of Habits.
Listening Comprehension.
Practice in Listening and comprehension.
Types and Modes of Spoken English.
Implication of Stress and Information.
Making Notes while Listening.
Communication Habits.
Use of Spoken Forms in Dialogue, Stories, Reading Alond.
Dramatisation and Poetry Reading.
Correct Use of Stress and Intonation and Division of Utterance into
Meaningful Word Groups Good Reading Habits.
Reading with Appropriate Speed for Various Purposes such as Studying.
Looking for Information, Scanning etc.
Reading for Appreciation of Form. Style and Authors Personality.
Reading for Facts, Reasoning Logical Relationship, Defination.
Generalisation, Understand, Diagrams.

Reading Mannals Charts -. Shedule and Rule Books Good Writing Habits.
Advancd Mechanics of Writing i.e. Spelling, Punctuation, Indenting.
Title and Subtile of Sections. Underlining, Quatotation. Use of
Parentheses.
Use of Abbrevations, Capital Letters and Correct Forms of Address in
letters, Application etc.
Organisation of a paragraph. An Essay or a Paper i.e. Organisation of
Matter
Language Games.
5 Lesson Planning
Prose
Poetry
Grammar
Composition
Audio Visual Aids Importance, Types, Production and Usage.
6. Evaluation
New Directions in Evaluation
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
Diagnostic Tests and Remedial Tests and Remedial Techniques.
Self Evaluation and Self Correcting Exercise.
Writing Objectives Type Test Items under the Cognitive, Affective and
Psychomotor Domains.
Different KInds of Exerc1se, Checkhsts, Probes and Progress Records. Assignments
1. Dividing Syllabus into units and arranging them in proper sequence.
2. Cricital study of any one English Text Book prescribed for class IX, X, XI

or XII.
3. Ptearaon of a 3rit PXan for teachinEnjsh.
4. Preparation of a Lesson Plan for teaching English.
5. Preparation of Question Papers and Test Items.

Reference -
1. Allien, W.S. Learning English Structure, Longmans
2. Bachhold H.F. and Behling The Science of Language and the Art of Teaching, Charles Scribners Sons, New York.
3. Billows, F.L. The Techniques of Language Teaching, London Longman, 1975
4. Catarby, E.V. Teaching English as a Foreign Language.
5. Chaturvedy, M.G. Position of Languages in School Curriculum in India, New Delhi. NCERT, 1986.
6. French F.G. Teaching of English Abroad (Book I, IT & TIT)
7. Hornby, A.S. A Guide to Pattern and Usage in English, Oxford University Press.
8. Jam, R.K. Essential of English Teaching, Babu La! Book Depot, Meerut.
9. Lado, Robert Language Teaching
10. Michael West Teaching English in Difficult Circumstances.
11. Ministry of Education Pub. No. 810, The Study of English in India.
12. Morris, I. Teaching of English as a Living Language Book I, Publication Div. NCERT, New Delhi
13. Paliwal English Language Teaching Aavishkar Publishers, Jaipur.
14. Sharma, Kusum A Handbook of English Teaching, Radha Prakashan Mandir, Agta.
15. Trivedi, R.S. Teaching of Teaching English Balgovind Prakashan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

laLr f'k{k.k fof/k

mn~ns';

f'k{kd f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dh ;ksX;rk ds fodkl ds fy,

1 ek/;fed Lrj ij laLr f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';ksa ds fr tkx:drk mRiUu djukA

2 lEs"k.k dkS'ky ds vfHkk; ls voxr djkukA

3 laLr f'k{k.k dh fof/k;ksa ls ifjfpr djkukA

4 laLr&f'k{k.k ds fy, Hkkoh f'k{k.k lkexzh dh rS;kjh rFkk mi;ksx djus dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

5 laLr Hkk"kk lh[kus o vH;kl dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa lk/kuksa ls ifjfpr djuk

6 laLr f'k{k.k ds funkukRed o mipkjkRed dkS'ky fodflr djukA

ikB~;ppkZ

1 ek/;fed Lrj ij laLr v/;kiu ds mn~ns';

       Hkkjr ,oa fons'k esa laLr dh HkwfedkA

       laLr f'k{k.k ds mn~ns'; ,oa y{;

jk"Vh; ,drk ds fy, sj.kk 'kfDr ds :i esa]

jk"Vh; fojklr ds j{kd ds :i es uSfrd o vk/;kfRed ewY;ksa ds ewY;kadu ds fy, cgqHkk"kk v/;;u ds vk/kkj ds :i esa A

fo|ky; ikB;e esa laLr dk LFkku dsUnzh; o e-- ljdkj }kjk laLr dh lqj{kk gsrq fd;s x;s ;kl

ek/;fed fo|ky;ksa esa laLr dk ikB;e

laLr f'k{k.k dh ;ksX;rk ,oa Hkwfedk

2 fof/k;ksa ,oa mixe

       ikB'kkyk fof/k

       Hk.Mkjdj fof/k

       R;{k fof/k

       jpuk mikxe

3 f'k{k.k dkS'ky

       vuqokn f'k{k.k

       x| f'k{k.k

       i| f'k{k.k

       O;kdj.k f'k{k.k

       jpuk f'k{k.k

4 vknrksa dk fuekZ.k

       mPpkj.k

       ekSuokpu

       ekSf[kddFku] fof'k"V Hkk"kk f'k{k.k dkS'ky

5 ikB;kstuk

       vuqokn

       x|&HkkokRed vkSj vk/;kfed Hkko dk fodkl lkSan;kZRed Hkko dh vfHkO;fDr

       i|&HkkokRed vkSj vk/;kfed Hkko dk fodkl lkSan;kZRed Hkko dh vfHkO;fDr] i| f'k{k.k ds ?kVd

       O;kdj.k

       jpuk&fyf[kr ,oa ekSf[kd jpuk dk lEcU/k

       n`'; dkO; lkexzh&ego] dkj] fuekZ.k ,oa mi;ksx

ewY;kadu

       ewY;kadu ds u;s vk;ke

       lrr~ o lexz ewY;kadu

       funkukRed ijh{k.k ,oa mipkjkRed f'k{k.k] mipkjkRed rduhdh

       LoewY;kadu Lo;a lq/kkj dk vH;kl

       fofHkUu vH;kl rkfydk, pSdfyLV vfHkys[k xfr iqLrd

       nRrdk;Z KkukRed] HkkokRed] f;kRed mn~ns';ksa ds vk/kkj ij oLrqfu"B ijh{k.k dk fuekZ.k] ikB~;ppkZ dk bdkbZokj foHkktu djuk rFkk mUgsa lgh e esa j[kukA

       9 10 11 ;k 12 d{kk dh fdlh ,d laLr ikB;iqLrd dk vkykspukRed v/;;u djuk

       laLr f'k{k.k ds fy, bdkbZ ;kstuk rS;kj djukA

       laLr f'k{k.k ds fy, ikB ;kstuk rS;kj djukA

       'ui= rFkk ijh{k.k i= rS;kj djukA

 

 

 

lanHkZ iqLrdsa &

1 Mh-th- vkiVs ,oa ih-ds- Mksxjs ek/;fed fo|ky;ksa ds fy, laLr f'k{k.k] vkpk;Z cqd fMiks cMkSnk xqtjkr

2 Ogh-ih- cksdhy ,oa ,u-ds- ijkluhd laLr ds u;s mikxe] yksdlaxzg sl iq.ksa egkjk"V

3 vkj-,l- prqoZsnh laLr f'k{k.k i)frA

4 laLr vk;ksx dh fjiksV Hkkjr ljdkj

5 vkj-,l- lQk;k laLr f'k{k.k fof/k

gfj;k.kk lkfgR; vdknseh p.Mhx<+

6 'kkL=h ,oa 'kkL=h laLr f'k{k.k

jktLFkku dk'ku t;iqj

7 ,l-Mh- flax ,oa 'kf'kdyk 'kekZ laLr f'k{k.k] jk/kk dk'ku

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teaching of Urdu
Objective

1. To acquire awareness of the objectives Urdu at the Secondary level.
2. To understand the significance of communication skills.
3. To get acquainted with the methods of teaching Urdu the instructional materials for the teaching of Urdu
4. To get acquainted with the various aspects of the Urdu study and devices of language learning.
5. To develop diagnostic and remedial skills in teaching of Urdu.
Syllabus
1. Objectives of Teaching and Learning of Urdu at Secondary Level.
Mother Tongue Learning Role and Importance of Mother Tongue.
Aims and Objectives of Teaching Urdu
As First Language
As Second Language
As Third Language
Role of Urdu in India and its Place in the School Curciculum.
The Curiculum of Urdu in the Secondary School.
Qualities and Role of the Urdu Teacher


2. Methods and Approaches
Translation Method
Direct Method
Bilingual Method
Discussion Method

Structural Approach
Situational Approach
Communicative Approach


3. Teacher of Skills
Teaching Alphabets and Spelling
Teaching Prose
Teaching Poetry
Teaching Grammar
Teaching Composition
4. Inculcation of Habits.
Listening comprehension
Practices in Listening and Comprehension
Implications of Stress and Intonation
Making Notes While Listening
Communication Habits
Uses of Spoken forms in Dialogue, Stories, Reading Aloud,
Dramatisation and Poetry Reading.
Correct uses of Stress and Intonation and Division of Utterance Into
Meaningful Word Groups.
Good Reading Habits
Reading with Appropriate Speed for Various Purposes Such as
Studying. Looking for Information, Scanning etc.
Reading for Overall Comprehension, Practice of Analysing a Text for
Organisation
Reading for Evaluation
Reading for Appreciation of form, Style and Authors Personality
Reading for Facts, Reasoning, Logical relationship, Definations,
Generalisation, Understanding Diagrams.
Reading Manuals, Charts, Schedule and Ru-le Books.
Good Writing Habits
Advanced Mechanics of writing i.e. Spelling, Punctuation, Indenting,
Title and Subtilte of Sections, Underling, Quatations, Use of

 

 

Parenthesis, Use of Abbreviatbns, Capital Letters and Correct forms of
Address.in Letters Application etc.
Organisation of a Paragraph, An essay on a paper i.e. Organisation of Matter.
5. Lesson Planning
Prose Fictional and Non-Fictional; Informative, Despective and
Emotional
Poetry Development of the Emotional Aspect Expression and its
Aesthetic Sense, Components of Poetry Teaching
Grammar
Composition Relationship between Oral and Written Composition.
Audio visual Aids. Importance, types, Production and Usage.
6. Evaluation
New Direction in Evaluation
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
Diagonistic Tests and Remedial Tests and Remedial Techniques.
Self Evaluation and Self Correcting Exercise.
Writing Objectives Type Test Items under the Cognitive, Affective and
Psychomotor Domains.
Different Kinds of Exercise, Checklists, Probes and Progress Records.
Assignments
1. Dividing sliabus into units and arranging them in proper sequence.
2. Cricitical study of any one Urdu text book prescribed for class IX, X, XI or XII.
3. Preparation of a Unit Plan for teaching Urdu.
4. Preparation of a Lesson Plan for teaching Urdu.
5. Preparation of Question Papers and Test Items.

 

 


References
1. Abmed Husian Tadress e Urdu
2. Dr. Farooq Ansari Instructional Material for Teachers on the New Techniques and Approaches of Teaching Urdu at Secondary Level.

3. Her Majestys Publication Teaching the Mother Tongue in Secondary Schools.
4. Jales Abidi
Ibtidayee School main Taleen ki Tariqey
5. Moinuddin Hum Urdu Kaise Parhayen
6. Rafiqua Kareen
Urdu Zaban Ke Tarequ-e-Tadrees
7. Salamat Ullah
Buniyadi Ustad Ke Liye
8. Salamat Ullah
Hum Kaise Parhayen
9. Saleem Abdullah
Urdu Kaise Parahayeen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bfrgkl f'k{k.k

mn~ns'; &

 

1- mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ij bfrgkl f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';ksa ls voxr djkukA

2- bfrgkl f'k{k.k dh rduhdksa ls voxr djkukA

3- bfrgkl f'k{k.k dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa ds ;ksxksa ds dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djuk A

4- mPprj ek/;fed fo|ky; Lrj dh bfrgkl dh iqLrdksa dk ewY;kadu

5- ewY;kadu dh fofHkUu .kkfy;ksa dk p;u djukA

6- p;fur lkexzh ds ;ksx ds dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djukA

 

ikB~;e &

 

1- mn~ns';] y{; rFkk {ks=

       bfrgkl f'k{k.k dh fr rFkk vo/kkj.kk] lkekftd foKku dk fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ls lglEcU/k

       bfrgkl] ukxfjd'kkL=] vFkZ'kkL=] Hkwxksy] lekt'kkL=] lkekftd&v/;;u ek/;fed Lrj ds

       bfrgkl f'k{k.k ds y{; ,oa mn~ns'; ek/;fed Lrj dsA

       ek/;fed Lrj ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa bfrgkl ds y{;ksa o mn~ns'; ds dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djukA

       LFkkuh; bfrgkl dk ego & kUrh;] {ks=h;] jk"Vh; ,oa vUrjjk"Vh; ,oa vUrjjk"Vh; Lrj rd

       bfrgkl f'k{k.k ds ewY; & lkaLfrd] uSfrd] ckSf)d] vukSipkfjd] jk"Vh; ,oa vUrjjk"Vh; Lrj ijA

2- bfrgkl dk ikB~;e &

       ikB~;e fuekZ.k ds lkekU; fl)kUrA

       ikB~;e ds fuekZ.k o p;u ds lkekU; fl)kUrA

       mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ij bfrgkl dh ikB~;oLrq dk Lrqrhdj.kA

       fofHkUu Lrjksa ij bfrgkl f'k{k.k dk laxBuA

       bfrgkl f'k{k.k ds ikB~;e laxBu dh fof/k;k dkyekuqlkj fof/k] dj.k fof/k] ikFk fof/k] bu fof/k;ksa ds xq.k & nks"kA

3- bfrgkl f'k{k.k dh fof/k;kA

       bfrgkl f'k{k.k] fof/k ds fl)kUr ,oa f'k{k.k lw= ls lEcU/k

       bfrgkl f'k{k.k dh fof/k;k o fof/k;k

ijEijkxr ikB~;&iqLrd fof/k] dgkuh fof/k] ppkZ fof/k] ;kstuk fof/k] [ksy fof/k] fp= fof/k fof/k;k] 'uksRrj dFku] ijh{kk] vH;kl] fufj{k.k] nRrdk;ZA

4- bfrgkl f'k{k.k dh lgk;d lkexzh &

       ijEijkxr lkexzh & ';keiV~V] ikB~;iqLrd

       ekSf[kd lkexzh & dgkuh] mnkgj.k] ukVdhdj.kA

       n`'; lkexzh & cqysfVu cksMZ] bfrgkl ds pkVZl] ,sfrgkfld uD'ks] okLrfod oLrq,] lUnHkZ xzUFk] uewus] fp=] Nk;kfp=

       JO; lkexzh & jsfM;ks] VsifjdkMZjA

       n`';&JO; lkexzh & ,sfrgkfld fQYesa] fQYe LVhi] nwjn'kZuA

       ;k=k] i;ZVu] QhYM odZ & laxzgky;] lkekftd o lkaLfrd thou dh n'kZuhA

       le; js[kk] le; pkVZ] dkye o oa'kkoyh dk pkVZA

 

 

5- ikB ;kstuk

       okf"kZd ;kstuk

       bdkbZ ;kstuk

       ikB;kstuk & in ,oa O;k[;k

       bdkbZ ewY;kadu

6- bfrgkl ikB~;iqLrd ,oa lalk/ku

       ikB~;iqLrd dh vko';drk] egoA

       ikB~;iqLrd dk p;uA

       ikB~;iqLrd leh{kkA

       fofHkUu Lrjksa ij ikB~;iqLrd dh foospukA

       bfrgkl d{k

       bfrgkl f'k{kd dk O;fDrRo] o`fkd dq'kyrk,] lk/ku dh iw.kZrkA

7- ewY;kadu &

       ewY;kadu dk vFkZ ,oa mn~ns';

       ewY;kadu ds pj.k

       ewY;kadu dh fof/k;k & fucU/kkRed] laf{kIr mRrj] oLrqfu"V 'u] bfrgkl ds 'kSf{kd ewY;ksa dk ewY;kaduA

       bdkbZ ijh{k.k dk fuekZ.kA

       KkukRed HkkokRed ,oa f;kRed i{k ds mn~ns';ksa dk fuekZ.k djukA

nkdk;Z &

       ikB~;oLrq dk fofHkUu bdkb;ksa esa foHkktu dj mls eokj tekukA

       9]10]11 dh fdlh Hkh ,d ikB~;iqLrd dh leh{kk djukA

       bfrgkl f'k{k.k dh bdkbZ ;kstuk dk fuekZ.k djukA

       bfrgkl f'k{k.k dh lgk;d lkexzh dk fuekZ.k djukA

       9]10]11 oha ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds bdkbZ ewY;kadu o 'ui=ksa dk fuekZ.kA

       bfrgkl f'k{k.k dh ikB ;kstuk dk fuekZ.k djukA

       x`gdk;Z rFkk fy[kkoV dh tkp djukA

       ,sfrgkfld LFkyksa dk Hkze.k

       ijh{k.k 'ui= rS;kj djukA

       fofHkUu dj.kksa ls lEcUf/kr pkV~Zl dk fuekZ.k djukA

lanHkZ iqlrdsa &

R;kxh o xq#'kjunkl & bfrgkl f'k{k.k] vkxjk

?kkVs ch-Mh- & bfrgkl f'k{k.k] gfj;k.kkA

bfrgkl ds fl)kUr ,oa i)fr;k & MkW- ikapky ,oa MkW ck?ksyk

bfrgkl ys[ku dh vo/kkj.kk & MkW- ekFkqj ,l-ds-

bfrgkl vkSj bfrgkl ys[ku & ks- jk/ks'kj.k

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hkwxksy f'k{k.k

 

mn~ns'; &

 

f'k{kd f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa esa ;ksX;rk fodkl ds fy,

1- mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ij Hkwxksy f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';ksa ls voxr djukA

2- Hkwxksy f'k{k.k dh fof/k;ksa ls voxr djkukA

3- Hkwxksy f'k{k.k dh fofHkUu f'k{k.k fof/k;ksa dk mi;ksx djus dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

4- mPprj ek/;fed Lrj dh ikB~;iqLrd dk ewY;kadu djus dh {kerk fodflr djukA

5- ewY;kadu dh mi;qDr ;qfDr;ksa dk p;u djukA

6- f'k{k.k lkexzh dk mi;ksx djus dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

ikB~;ppkZ &

1- mn~ns'; y{; ,oa {ks=

       Hkwxksy dk vFkZ] lkekU; fopkj vkSj mldh fr

       mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ij lkekftd foKku ds fofHkUu fo"k;ksa & bfrgkl] ukxfjd'kkL=] vFkZ'kkL=] Hkwxksy] lekt'kkL= rFkk lkekftd&foKku dk leUo;

       m-ek- Lrj ij Hkwxksy f'k{k.k ds y{; ,oa mn~ns';] fo|ky; ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa dq'kyrk dk fodkl djukA

2- Hkwxksy dk ikB~;e &

       ikB~;efuekZ.k ds lkekU; fl)kUr] ikB~;oLrq ds p;u rFkk laxBu ds fl)kUrA

       m-ek- Lrj ij Hkwxksy dh fo"k;oLrq dk Lrqrhdj.k

 

3- Hkwxksy f'k{k.k dh fof/k;kWa &

       Hkwxksy lacaf/kr f'k{k.k lw= ds lkekU; fl)kUr

       Hkwxksy f'k{k.k dh fof/k;kWa ,oa fof/k;k ijEijkxr f'k{k.k fof/k;k % ikB~;iqLrd fof/k O;k[;ku fof/k dgkuh dFku fof/k] fopkj foe'kZ fof/k] ;kstuk fof/k] [ksy fof/kA fof/k;k & 'u] dFku ijh{kk] vH;kl i;Zos{k.k] v/;;u ,oa dk;Z fu/kkZj.k

4- Hkwxksy dh f'k{k.k lkezxh &

       ijEijkxr] lkexzh & ';keiV~V]ikB~;iqLrd

       ekSf[kd lkexzh & dgkuh] mnkgj.k] n'kZu

       n`'; lkexzh & okLrfod inkFkZ] uewus] fp=

       JO; lkexzh & jsfM;ks] VsifjdkMZj

       n`';&JO; lkexzh & fQYe] fQYeLVhi] nwjn'kZu] i;ZVu] QhYModZA

5- ikB ;kstuk &

       okf"kZd ;kstuk

       bdkbZ ;kstuk

       ikB ;kstuk & ikB;kstuk ds pj.k ,oa O;k[;k

       bdkbZ ijh{k.k

6- Hkwxksy dh ikB~;iqLrd ,oa lalk/ku

       ikB~;iqLrd dk ego ,oa vko';drk

ikB~;iqLrd dk p;u] fofHkUu Lrjksa ij dqN ikB~; iqLrdksa dh leh{kk djukA

       Hkwxksy d{k

       Hkwxksy f'k{kd dk O;fDrRo] O;kolkf;d dq'kyrk] ,oa lk/kuiw.kZrkA

7- Hkwxksy esa eY;kadu

        ewY;kadu dk vFkZ ,oa mn~ns';] ewY;kadu ds pj.kA

        ewY;kadu dh fof/k;k & fuca/kkRed] y?kqRrjh; ,oa oLrqfu"V ijh{k.kA

Hkwxksy ls lEcU/khr ewY; ,oa ewy;kadu

        bdkbZ ijh{k.k dh jpuk

KkukRed HkkokRed ,oa euksf;kRed i{k ds varxZr oLrqfu"B ijh{k.k in fy[kukA

nk dk;Z &

1 bdkbZokj ikB~;p;kZ dk foHkktu djuk ,oa mUgsa lgh e esa j[kukA

2 uhoa] nloha ,oa X;kjgoh dh Hkqxksy iqLrd dk vkykspukRed v/;;u djukA

3 f'k{k.k lkexzh dk fuekZ.k djukA

4 9]10]11 oha d{kk ds fy, 'ui= rFkk inksa dks rS;kj djukA

5 Hkwxksy f'k{k.k ds fy, bdkbZ ;kstuk rS;kj djukA

6 Hkwxksy esa ikB;kstuk rS;kj djukA

7 x`gdk;Z rFkk fy[kkoV dh tkaap djukA

8 dj.k ls lacaf/kr pkVZ rS;kj djukA

9 VeZ 'ui= fy[kukA

lanHkZ iqLrdsa &

1 m-ek- Lrj ij lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k

esxzk ghy cqd daiuh] U;;kdZ

2 tsEl ysfeax & m-ek- 'kkyk esa lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k

ykaxesu xzhu ,aM daiuh] yanuA

3 ch-ih- 'kkjns ,oa 'kekZ ts-lh- & Hkwxksy f'k{k.k

4 gky Ms- ohM+ & Hkwxksy ,oa Hkwxksy f'k{k.k

5 Mh-,u- nslkbZ ,oa esgrk Vh-,l- lkekftd v/;;u esa ewY;kadu

        Mh-bZ-ih-,l-bZ- & f'k{kk ea=ky; Hkkjr ljdkj

        ,e- ekyoh; & lkekftd foKku

        ,f'k;k dk'ku xqg & ckEcs

oh-vkj- rustk] lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k ds fl)kUr

efganzk dsfiVy dk'ku & ubZ fnYyhA

foKku f'k{k.k

mn~ns';

1 foKku fo"k; ds lHkh {ks=ksa esa f'k{kd & fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh ;ksX;rkvksa vkSj dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djukA

2 foKku dh fr ds fy, le> fodflr djukA

3 foKku f'k{k.k ds mn~ns'; vkSj dk;Z{ks= ls voxr djkukA

4 foKku f'k{k.k dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa dh vo/kkj.kk ls voxr djkukA

5 foKku dh fo"k;oLrq dh /kkj.kkvksa ,oa mi/kkj.kkvksa dk fo'ys"k.k ,oa fofHkUu dk;Z{ks=ksa esa mudk vUrZlEcU/kA

6 foKku ikB~;e dh voLFkkvksa ls voxr djkuk vkSj foKku ikB~;e iqujh{k.k ds ;ksX; cukukA

7 vYiO;;h f'k{k.k lkexzh ,oa mi;qDr 'kSf{kd kS|ksfxdh dk fodkl ,oa mi;ksxA

ikB~;e

1 foKku dh fr vkSj {ks=

       oSKkfud fof/k vkSj n`f"Vdks.k

       fo|ky; esa foKku f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';

       mn~ns';ksa ds dkj

       foKku f'k{k.k ds O;ogkjxr mn~ns';

2 foKku ikB~;e dk bfrgkl vkSj vk/kqfud o`fRr;k

       fo|ky; Lrj ij foKku ikB~;e fuekZ.k ds fl)kUr

       foKku ikB~;e kstsDVl

3 foKku f'k{k.k fof/k;k vkSj mudh k;ksfxd mi;ksfxrk

       O;k[;ku lg n'kZu fof/kA

       [kkst rFkk fopkj foe'kZ fo/khA

       vkxeu fuxeu fo/kh

       leL;k lek/kku fo/kh

       k;kstuk fo/kh

       O;fDrxr vuqns'ku

       vo/kkj.kk vk;ke ls f;k vk;ke

       lw{e f'k{k.k

       :fp }kjk lh[kuk

       dEI;wVj }kjk funsZ'ku

4 f'k{k.k lkexzh vkSj lEs{k.k ehfM;k

f'k{k.k lkexzh vkSj ehfM;k dk egRo vkSj oxhZdj.k

v{ksfir lkexzh

       ';keiV ds dkj

       pkVZ

       fp=

       xzkQ

       iksLVj

       ekufp=

       Mk;xzke [kkdk

       ekWMYl freku

{ksfir lkexzh

       LykbM

       fQYel

       fQYe ifV~V;k

lkj.k lEs"k.k

       jsfM;ks

       nwjn'kZu

       VsyhdkUsflax

fMftVy ehfM;k

       laxfBr fMLd lh-Mh-

       ystj fMLd

       vadh; fofo/krkiw.kZ fMLd Mh-oh-Mh-

vU;

       vkfM;ks dSlsV

       ohfM;ks dSlsV

5 ewY;kadu

       lrr~ vkSj lexz ewY;kadu

       ijh{k.k ds dkj & oLrqfu"B] fuca/kkRed rFkk y?kqRrjh;

       funkukRed ijh{k.k] miyfC/k ijh{k.k] dlkSVh lanHkZ ijh{k.k rFkk uhy i= Cyw faV

       foKku esa ijh{k.k ds fy, fofHkUu dkj ds 'u fodflr djukA

6 Hkkoh d{kk d{k f'k{k.k ds fy, i<+us ;ksX; ikB

       ikfjfLFkfrd rU=

       [kk| J`a[kyk

       i;kZoj.k

       iks"k.k

       nw"k.k

       lkSj mtkZ

       IykfLVd

       mixzg lEs"k.k

nk dk;Z &

1 orZeku foKku ikB~; iqLrdksa dk iqujh{k.k ,oa nks vf/kxe f;kvksa dk fodkl

2 ek/;fed Lrj ij orZeku foKku ikB~;e dh /kkj.kkvksa dks igpku vkSj fo'ys"k.k djukA

3 20 fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, foKku ;ksx'kkyk dh :ijs[kk cukuk ,oa miHkksX; ,oa vuqiHkksX; oLrqvksa dh lwph rS;kj djukA

4 foKku Dyc ,oa foKku esys dk laxBu

5 fofHkUu {ks=ksa ,oa fofHkUu dkjksa ds ijh{k.k fodflr djukA

6 funkukRed ,oa miyfC/k ijh{k.k rS;kj djukA

7 foKku dh xyr /kkj.kkvksa dk v/;;uA

lanHkZ &

Sterling Publication, New Delhi.

Vikas Publication, New Delhi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

jlk;u foKku f'k{k.k

mn~ns'; &

1 ek/;fed fo|ky;ksa esa jlk;u foKku f'k{k.k ds fofo/k mn~ns';ksa ds fy, le> fodflr djukA

2 jlk;u foKku ds fofHkUu dj.kksa ds f'k{k.k dh mi;qDr fof/k;ksa dks le>uk ,oa Lohdkj djukA

3 jlk;u foKku esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh vfHk:fp mRiUu djus ds fy, fofo/k ikB~; lgxkeh f;kvksa dh mi;ksfxrk dh vuq'kalk djukA

4 jlk;u foKku f'k{k.k esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh xfr ds ewY;kadu dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa ls voxr djukA

5 jlk;u foKku f'k{k.k esa fofHkUu dkj ds funsZ'kksa dh rS;kjh vkSj mudk mi;ksxA

6 jlk;u foKku ds f'k{k.k vkSj vf/kxe esa vkus okys dfBukbZ;ksa ds fy, fodflr djuk ,oa mipkjkRed lq>ko nsukA

ikB~;e &

1 foKku dh fr

       foKku dh ifjHkk"kk

       oSKkfud fof/k] oSKkfud vfHko`fRr rFkk oSKkfud lk{kjrk

jlk;u foKku ds mi;qDr mnkgj.k lghr

2- vuqns'kkRed mn~ns';

jlk;u f'k{k.k ds lkekU; vkSj fof'k"V mn~ns';

3 jlk;u foKku ikB~;e

fo|ky; ds ikB~;e esa jlk;u foKku dk LFkku] jlk;u foKku ikB~;e fuekZ.k dh uohu o`fRr;k & fo"k; oLrq vk/kkfjr] f;k vk/kkfjr] n`f"Vdks.k vk/kkfjr] jlk;u cU/k vk;ke lh-ch-,-] jlk;u 'kSf{kd lkexzh] ufQYM vk;ke ,u-,Q- lh[kuk&lh[kkuk iSdstA

4 jlk;u foKku dh f'k{k.k fof/k;k &

       O;k[;ku vkSj n'kZu fof/k

       [kkst vkSj fopkj foeZ'k fof/k

       vkxeu fuxeu fof/k

       leL;k lek/kku vkSj k;kstuk fof/k

5 jlk;u f'k{k.k esa f'k{k.k lkexzh

       n`'; rFkk n`';&JO; ,-ch- lkexzh] 'kSf{kd lkj.k] nwjn'kZu] VSyhdkUsfUlax] LofufeZr midj.kA

6 jlk;u foKku ;ksx'kkyk

;kstuk] midj.k] lewg dk mi;ksx] jlk;u foKku] ;ksx'kkyk esa lqj{kk

7 bdkbZ ;kstuk rFkk ikB ;kstuk & vko';d rRo

8 ewY;kadu

lrr~ vkSj lexz ewY;kadu

ijh{k.k ds dkj & oLrqfu"B] fucU/kkRed rFkk y?kqRrjh;

funkukRed ijh{k.k rFkk miyfC/k ijh{k.k] dlkSVh lanHkZ ijh{k.k rFkk uhyi=

jlk;u foKku esa ijh{k.k ds fofHkUu dkj ds 'uksa dk fuekZ.kA

nRr dk;Z &

1 ;ksxksa dh ;kstuk ,oa lapkyu

2 vYiO;;h lkexzh ,oa midj.kksaa dk LofuekZ.k

3 pkVZ ,oa frekuksa dk fuekZ.k

4 jlk;u foKku dh ifj;kstukvksa dk fuekZ.kA

5 jlk;u foKku dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk vkykspukRed fo'ys"k.k

6 f'k{kd fufeZr ijh{k.k ds fy, CywfaV dh :ijs[kk rS;kj djukA

 

 

lanHkZ &

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HkkSfrdh f'k{k.k

mn~ns'; &

1 ek/;fed Lrj ij HkkSfrdh f'k{k.k ds fofHkUu mn~ns';ksa dh le> fodflr djukA

2 HkkSfrdh f'k{k.k dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa ,oa fof/k;ksa ls voxr djkukA

3 vf/kxe esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh vfHk:fp mRiUu djus ds fy, ikB~; lgxkeh f;kvksa dh mi;ksfxrk dh vuq'kalk djukA

4 miyC/k midj.kksa ls fuekZ.k rFkk oSKkfud lkexzh esa lq/kkj ,oa cU/ku dh ;ksX;rk fodflr djukA

5 fofo/k n`';&JO; lkexzh ds ;ksx ,oa n'kZu ds vk/kkjHkwr dkS'kyksa dks fodflr djukA

6 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh xfr ,oa miyfC/k fu/kkZj.k ds fy, ewY;kadu dh mi;qDr fof/k;ksa dk ;ksx djukA

ikB~;e &

1 foKku dh fr

       foKku vkSj mldh fr] oSKkfud fof/k vkSj n`f"Vdks.k] HkkSfrd foKku dh fr] mldk {ks= rFkk fodkl] HkkSfrd foKku dk vU; fo"k;ksa ls lglEcU/k] foKku dh lhek,

2 HkkSfrd foKku f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';

       fo|ky;hu Lrj ij HkkSfrd foKku f'k{k.k dk egRo] va'kdkyhu ,oa nh?kZdkyhu mn~ns';] HkkSfrdh f'k{k.k ds 'kSf{kd mn~ns';ksa dk oxhZdj.k] O;ogkjxr mn~ns';A

3 HkkSfrd foKku esa ikB~;e fuekZ.k

       fo|ky;hu Lrj ij HkkSfrd foKku ikB~;e ;kstuk ds fl)kUr] HkkSfrd foKku ds ikB~;e fuekZ.k dh o`fZRr;k &

4 HkkSfrd foKku f'k{k.k dh fof/k;k ,oa vk;ke

       f'k{kd dsafnzr ,oa cky dsafnzr fof/k;k] vkxeu vkSj fuxeu fof/k] la'ys"k.k ,oa fo'ys"k.k fof/k] O;k[;ku] n'kZu] ;ksx'kyk] lek/kku fof/k] {ksi.k fof/k] vuqla/kku ,oa ekxZnf'kZr vuqla/kku] vfHkfer funsZ'kuA

5 HkkSfrd foKku f'k{k.k esa lgk;d lkexzh

       n`'; ,oa JO;&n`'; lkexzh] 'kSf{kd lkj.k] nwjn'kZu ,oa VsyhdkUsflax] LofufeZr midj.kA

6 HkkSfrd ;ksx'kkyk

       HkkSfrd foKku esa ;ksx'kkyk dk;Z dk egRo] HkkSfrdh ;ksx'kkyk dh dk;Z ;kstuk ,oa cU/ku j[k j[kko] {ks=h; Hkze.k] foKku n'kZuhA

7 HkkSfrd foKku esa ikB ;kstuk

       HkkSfrdh esa funsZ'ku ds fy, dk;Z ;kstuk dh vko';drk] ikB ;kstuk ds vk/kkjHkwr vo;o] HkkSfrd f'k{k.k ds IkkB ;kstuk dh iwoZ rS;kjhA

8 ewY;kadu

       lexz ,oa lrr~ ewY;kadu

       ijh{k.k ds dkj & oLrqfu"B] nh?kZmRrjh; ,oa y?kqmRrjh;

       funkukRed ijh{k.k] miyfC/k ijh{k.k] dlkSVh lanHkZ ijh{k.k] Cyw faVA

       fofHkUu dkj ds ijh{k.kksa ds fy, 'u fuekZ.k djukA

nRr dk;Z

1 ;ksxksa dh ;kstuk ,oa lapkyuA

2 vYiO;;h f'k{k.k lkexzh ,oa midj.kksa dk LofuekZ.kA

3 pkVZ ,oa frekuksa dk fuekZ.kA

4 HkkSfrdh dh ifj;kstukvksa dk fuekZ.kA

5 HkkSfrdh dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk vkykspukRed fo'ys"k.kA

6 f'k{kd fufeZr ijh{k.k ds fy, Cyw faV dh :ijs[kk rS;kj djukA

 

lanHkZ &

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

f'k{k.k fof/k & f}rh;

'ui= & "k"Be

ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k

mn~ns'; &

1 mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ij ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';ksa ls voxr djkukA

2 ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k dks i<+kus mi;qDr fof/k;ksa rFkk fof/k;ksa dks fodflr djukA

3 U;wure [kpZ esa lgk;d lkexzh dk fuekZ.k djukA

4 ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k esa fofHkUu dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djukA

5 fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k esa ikB~; lgxkeh ds fr fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa :fp mRiUu djukA

6 ukxfjd 'kkL= dh ikB~;iqLrd ,oa ikB~;e dk ewY;kadu ,oa voyksd djukA

7 lkekftd foKku dk fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ls lglEcU/k ,oa muds fr le> dk fodkl djukA

8 fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa fo'oca/kqRo ,oa jk"Vh; ,drk dk fodkl djukA

9 fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa jk"Vh; ,drk ds fodkl ds fy, rkRdkfyd ?kVukvksa dk Kku djkukA

bdkbZ & 1

ukxfjd 'kkL= dk vFkZ] {ks= ,oa mn~ns';

v ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';] fo|ky; ikB~;e esa ,d i`Fkd fo"k; ds :i esa ukxfjd 'kkL= dh ekU;rkA

c ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k ds ek/;e ls fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa lkekftd vkn'kksZa dk pkjA

l ukxfjd 'kkL= dh vko';drk] egRo ,oa ukxfjd 'kkL= dk vU; fo"k;ksa ls lg lEcU/kA

n ekuo vf/kdkj ,oa drZO; dh vo/kkj.kkA

bdkbZ & 2

ukxfjd 'kkL= dk ikB~;e

v ikB~;e fuekZ.k ds fl)kUr] ukxfjd 'kkL= esa ikB~;oLrq dk p;uA

ukxfjd 'kkL= esa p;fur ikB~;oLrq dk laxBuA

c f'k{kk ds fofHkUu Lrjksa ij ukxfjd 'kkL= dh ikB~;oLrq dk Lrqrhdj.kA

bdkbZ & 3

ukxfjd 'kkL= dh f'k{k.k i)fr;k

v ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k ds lkekU; fl)kUr ,oa lw=A

c ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k dh f'k{k.k i)fr;k

1 ijEijkxr f'k{k.k i)fr &ijEijkxr f'k{k.k i)fr ] ikB~;iqLrd fof/k ] dgkuh i)fr

2 vk/kqfud f'k{k.k i)fr;k & okn fookn i)fr] ;kstuk i)fUr] [ksy fof/k] fof/k;k&i;Zosf{kr fof/k] dk;Zfu/kkZj.k fof/k] 'uof/k] dFku fof/k] ijh{kk fof/k] vH;kl fof/k

bdkbZ & 4

ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k dh lgk;d lkexzh

1 ijEijkxr lgk;d lkexzh & ';keiV] ';keiV dk mi;ksx] ';keiV ds xq.k] mi;ksx ls lEcfU/kr egRoiw.kZ ckrsA

iqLrdsa & iqLrdksa ds xq.k

'kkfCnd lk/ku & dgkuh] mnkgj.kA

n'kZukRed lk/ku & okLrfod inkFkZ] ekWMy] fp=

JO;lk/ku & jsfM;ks] VsifjdkMZjA

JO; n`'; lk/ku & pyfp= rFkk fQYe [k.M] Vsyhfotu vU; lgk;d lkexzh & Hkze.k] {ks= dk;ZA

 

 

 

bdkbZ & 5

ikB ;kstuk

1 okf"kZd ikB ;kstuk

2 bdkbZ ;kstuk ikB ;kstuk dk Lo:i ;k fofHkUu in] bdkbZ ewY;kaduA

 

bdkbZ & 6

ukxfjd 'kkL= dh ikB~;iqLrd

 

1 ikB~;iqLrd dk vFkZ] ikB~;iqLrd dh vko';drk ,oa egRo] ukxfjd 'kkL= dh ikB~; iqLrd dk p;u

2 ukxfjd 'kkL= d{k

ukxfjd 'kkL= d{k dh vko';drk] ukxfjd 'kkL= d{k dh lkexzh ,oa mldh O;k[;kA

3 ukxfjd 'kkL= dk f'k{kd

ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{kd ds drZO; ,oa xq.kA

 

bdkbZ & 7

ukxfjd 'kkL= esa ewY;kadu

 

1 ewY;kadu dk vFkZ] ifjHkk"kk] mn~ns'; ,oa inA

2 ewY;kadu fof/k;ksa dk oxhZdj.kA

1 fucU/kukRed 2 oLrqfu"B mRrj

 

 

 

ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k ds ewY;

bdkbZ ;kstuk ij vk/kkfjr nSfud ikB ;kstuk

nRr dk;Z

1 bdkbZokj ikB~;p;kZ dk foHkktu djuk rFkk mUgsa lgh e esa j[kukA

2 9]10]11]12 oha dh iqLrdksa dh leh{kk djukA

3 ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k ds fy, bdkbZ ;kstuk cukukA

4 lgk;d lkexzh dk fuekZ.kA

5 9]10]11]12 d{kk ds fy, 'ui= ,oa ijh{k.k i= rS;kj djukA

6 gLrfyf[kr x`gdk;Z ,oa mldh tkpA

7 fdlh dkj.k ds vuqlkj ikB;kstuk dh rS;kjh fuekZ.k

8 dj.k ls lacaf/kr pkVZ dh rS;kjhA

9 fyf[kr 'ui=

lanHkZ iqLrdsa &

1 Balkrishna - Principles of Civics, Kitab Mahal, Allahabad.

2 Asirvatham & Politicat Theory Upper India Publishing House Ltd, Lucknow.

3 Gupte R.N. - Indian Constitution and Civic Life Kitab Mahal, Allahabad.

4 xq:ljunkl R;kxh & ukxfjd 'kkL= dk f'k{k.k fouksn iqLrd eafnj] vkxj

5 ljkst lDlsuk & ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k lkfgR; dk'ku] vkxjk

6 jkeiky flag oekZ & ukxfkd 'kkL= f'k{k.k vkj-yky-cqd fMiks] esjB

 

 

 

 

 

 

vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k

 

mn~ns'; & f'k{kd f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dh ;ksX;rk fodkl ds fy,

1 m-ek- Lrj ij vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';;ksa ls voxr djkukA

2 vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k dh fof/k;ksa ls voxr djukA

3 vFkZ'kkL= dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa dk mi;ksx djus dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

4 m-ek- Lrj dh ikB~;iqLrd dk ewY;kadu djus dh {kerk fodflr djukA

5 ewY;kadu dh mi;qDr ;qfDr;ksa dk p;u djukA

6 f'k{k.k lkexzh dh mi;ksx djus dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

ikB~;ppkZ &

1 mn~ns'; y{; rFkk {ks=

vFkZ'kkL= dk vFkZ] lkekU; fopkj rFkk mldh frA

2 m-ek- Lrj ij lkekftd foKku ds fofHkUu fo"k;ksa &

bfrgkl] ukxfjd 'kkL=] vFkZ'kkL=] Hkwxksy] lekt'kkL= dk leUo;A

3 m-ek- Lrj ij vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k ds y{; ,oa mn~ns'; fo|ky; ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa dq'kyrk dk fodkl djukA

4 vFkZ'kkL= dk ikB~;e &

       ikB~;e fuekZ.k ds lkekU; fl)kUr &

ikB~;oLrq ds p;u rFkk laxBu ds fuekZ.k ds fl)kUrA

       m-ek- Lrj ij vFkZ'kkL= dh fo"k;oLrq dk Lrqfrdj.k

5 vFkZ'kkL= dh fof/k;k &

       vFkZ'kkL= ds lazca/k esa vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k fof/k ds lkekU; fl)kUr & ,oa f'k{k.k lw=

       vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k dh rduhdh ,oa fof/k;k & ijaijkxr fof/k;k] ikB~;iqLrd fof/k & O;k[;ku fof/k] dgkuh dFku fof/k] fopkj foe'kZ fof/k] ;kstuk ,oa [ksy fof/k rduhdh & 'uksRrj] dFku ijh{kk vH;kl] fujh{k.k ,oa fu/kkZj.k & fof/kA

6 vFkZ'kkL= dh f'k{k.k lkexzh &

       ijaijkxr & ';keiV~V ikB~;iqLrd

ekSf[kd & dgkuh] mnkgj.k] ukVdhdj.k

n`'; midj.k & okLrfod inkFkZ oLrq uewus] fp=

JO; midj.k &jsfM;ks VsifjdkMZj

n`O; JO; & fQYe] fQYe LVhi] nwjn'kZu] i;ZVu] fQYM odZA

7 ikB;kstuk &

okf"kZd ;kstuk] bdkbZ ;kstuk] ikB;kstuk ds pj.k] O;k[;k] bdkbZ ijh{k.kA

8 vFkZ'kkL= dh ikB~; iqLrd ,oa lalk/ku &

       ikB~;iqLrd dk egRo ,oa vko';drk] ikB~; iqLrd dk p;u] fofHkUu Lrjksa ij dqN ikB~; iqLrdksa dh leh{kkA

       vFkZ'kkL= d{k

       vFkZ'kkL= f'k{kd dk O;fDrRo] O;kolkf;d dq'kyrk rFkk lk/kuiw.kZrkA

9 vFkZ'kkL= esa ewY;kadu & ewY;kadu dk vFkZ o mn~ns'; ewY;kadu ds lksiku] ewY;kadu dh fof/k;k & fuca/kkRed y?kqRrjh; ,oa oLrqfu"B ijh{k.k vFkZ'kkL= ls lacaf/kr ewY; ,oa ewY;kadu

       bdkbZ ijh{k.k dh jpuk & KkukRed HkkokRed ,oa euksf;kRed i{k ds mn~ns'; fy[kukA

 

 

 

 

nRr dk;Z &

 

1 bdkbZokj ikB~;ppkZ dk foHkktu djuk rFkk mUgsa ekuqlkj j[kukA

2 9]10]11]12 oha dh iqLrd dk vkykspukRed v/;;u djukA

3 vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k ds fy, bdkbZ ;kstuk cukukA

4 f'k{k.k lkexzh dk fuekZ.kA

5 9]10]11]12 oha ds fy, 'ui= rFkk ijh{k.k inks dk fuekZ.k djukA

6 vFkZ'kkL= esa ikB;kstuk cukukA

7 x`gdk;Z rFkk fy[kkoV dh tkap djukA

8 dj.k ds vuqlkj pkVZ dh rS;kjhA

9 VeZ 'ui= fy[kukA

 

lanfHkZr iqLrdsa &

 

1 vkj-vkj- fMokVl & vk/kqfud lS)kfUrd vFkZ'kkL=

2 ,-,u- vxzoky & vFkZ'kL= dk ifjp;

3 vkj-ih- flax & vFkZ'kkL= f'k{kk

4 vkj-ih- 'kekZ & vFkZ'kkL= f'k{kk

5 xq:'kj.knkl R;kxh & vFkZ'kkL= f'k{kk

6 fodkl pkS/kjh & vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k

7 ,-ds- xkSM+ & vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k

jk[kh dk'ku] vkxjkA

 

 

 

lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k

mn~ns'; &

f'k{k.k f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dh ;ksX;rk fodflr djus ds fy,

1 mPprj ek- Lrj ij lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';ksa ls voxr djukA

2 lkekftd foKku dh fr] <a+kpk o {ks= dh le> fodflr djukA

3 mnh;eku Hkkjrh; lekt dh vko';drk ds vuqlkj bfrgkl ukxfjd 'kkL=] Hkwxksy o lekt'kkL= ds v/;;u ds egRo dk cks/k djukA

4 jk"V o lekt dh iquZlajpuk esa lkekftd foKku dh Hkwfedk ds egRo dk cks/k djukA

5 euq";] lekt o jk"V ds fodkl dks /;ku esa j[kdj fofHkUu {ks=ksa & bfrgkl] Hkwxkksy] ukxfjd 'kkL=] vFkZ'kkL= rFkk lekt'kkL= ds chp vr% laca/k dh le> fodflr djukA

6 fo|ky; Lrj ij lkekftd foKku fo"k; dh fofHkUu ;qfDriw.kZ dkS'ky dk mi;ksx djus dh le> fodflr djukA

7 fofHkUu lewgksa dh O;wg jpuk djuk rFkk fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa fofHkUu lewg xfrfof/k;ksa esa feydj dk;Z djus dk Hkko fodflr djukA

8 ewY;kadu dh vo/kkj.kk rFkk fofHkUu mi;ksxksa ls voxr djkuk rFkk lkekU; foKku f'k{k.k esa mi;ksxh ewY;kadu ds fofHkUu midj.kksa dk fuekZ.k djus dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

9 lkekU; foKku f'k{k.k esa LFkkuh; i;kZoj.k leqnk;] lalk/ku] vU; 'kS{kf.kd lk/kuksa dk mi;ksx djus dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

 

 

 

 

 

1 ikB~;p;kZ &

1 mn~ns'; & y{; ,oa {ks=

lkekftd foKku ,oa lkekftd v/;;u] vFkZ] fr ,oa lkekU;] fopkj] Ldwy Lrj ij lkekftd foKku dk fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ls leUo; & bfrgkl] ukxfjd 'kkL=] vFkZ'kkL=] Hkwxksy ,oa lekt'kkL=

m-ek- Lrj ij lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k ds y{; ,oa mn~ns'; & e-- ds lanHkZ esa ikB~;e dk laxBu ,oa Js.kh fu/kkZj.kA

2 ikB~;e & ikB~;e fuekZ.k ds fl)kUr ,oa mikxe ,oa mudh lkekftd foKku ds ikB~;e ds foLrkj esa vuqdwyrk

e-- rFkk vU; jkT;ksa ds orZeku ikB~;e dk jk"Vh; ikB~;e ds vuqlkj fodkl djukA

e-- ds lanHkZ ikB~;e dk eokj laxBu djukA

3 fof/k;k ,oa fof/k;k &

       fof/k;k & O;k[;ku] fof/k] okrkZyki fof/k] okn&fookn fof/k] leL;k lek/kku fof/k] ;kstuk fof/k] L=ksr fof/k] fQYM foftV] ewY; fuekZ.k fof/k] ekMy bUdok;jhA

       rduhdh & 'udkS'ky] ';keiV~V dk mi;ksx]ukVdhdj.k] Hkwfedk&fuokZg] dgkuh dFku] vuqdj.kA

       f'k{k.k lkexzh & lkekftd fo"k; f'k{k.k esa n`';&JO; lkexzh ,oa ;kaf=d ek/;e dk mi;ksx] de ykxr dh f'k{k.k&lkexzh dk fuekZ.kA

4 ikB;kstuk &

okf"kZd ;kstuk] bdkbZ & ;kstuk] vH;kl ikB;kstuk ds pj.k

5 ewY;kadu &

ewY;kadu dk lkekU; fopkj ,oa dkj & O;kid lrr~ ewY;kadu lkekftd foKku esa eokj ewY;kadu dh vko';drk] ewY;kadu dh vko';drk] ewY;kadu ds dkj] lk/ku ,oa muds xq.k nks"k &

KkukRed HkkokRed rFkk euksf;kRed i{k ds mn~ns';ksa dks fy[kukA

 

nRr dk;Z &

1 ikB~oLrq dk vkykspukRed v/;;u rFkk fo'ys"k.kA

2 Lrqr ikB~;iqLrd dk fo'ys"k.k djukA

3 'ui= dk fo'ys"k.k djukA

4 d{kk nloh ds fy, oLrqfu"B ijh{k.k rS;kj djukA

5 de ykxr ls f'k{k.k lkexzh dk fuekZ.k djukA

lanHkZ iqLrdsa &

fcfuax ,oa fcfuax & m-ek- Ldwy esa lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k

esxzkfgy cqd dEiuh & U;w;kdZ

,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- bfrgkl f'k{k.k & ubZ fnYyh

ds-ih- ikaMs & vFkZ'kkL= f'k{k.k

th-ih- voLFkh] ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k

Mh-,u- nslkbz & lkekftd v/;;u ds orZeku /kkj.kkA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

xf.kr f'k{k.k

 

mn~ns'; &

1 xf.kr f'k{k.k ds kI; mn~ns';] LFkku ,oa egRo dks tkuukA

2 ek/f;e Lrj ij xf.kr f'k{k.k ds rjhdksa vkSj fofHkUu vk;ke ls voxr djkukA

3 xf.kr f'k{k.k esa n`';&JO; lkexzh ds ;ksx gsrq fofHkUu dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djukA

4 xf.kr f'k{k.k esa ;kstukvksa vkSj f'k{k.k vf/kxe f;kvksa ds Hkko'khy fu"iknu ds fy, fofHkUu dkS'kyksa vkSj rduhdksa dk ;ksx djuk crkukA

5 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh xfr vkSj miyfC/k ds ewY;kadu dh mi;qDr rduhdksa fof/k;ksa ds ;ksx }kjk ewY;kadu djukA

6 funkukRed ijh{k.k }kjk fo|kfFkZ;ks dh dfe;ksa dk irk yxkuk vkSj mipkjkRed f'k{k.k djukA

 

ikB~;e &

1 xf.kr dh fr

fodkl vkSj foLrkj % ek/;fed Lrj ij fo|ky;hu ikB~;e eas xf.kr dk egRoA

2 xf.kr f'k{k.k ds kI; mn~ns'; &

'kSf{kd kI; mn~ns';ksa dk Cywe oxhZdj.k] rF;ksa ds Kku ds lanHkZ esa O;ogkjxr ifj.kke] fl)kUr ,oa vuq;;ksx dks le>ukA

3 xf.kr ikB~;e

       ek/;fed Lrj ij ikB~;e fuekZ.kA

       xf.kr k;kstuk esa vk/kqfud o`fRr tSls ,l-,e-,l-th-

4 f'k{k.k fof/k;k &

vkxeu fof/k] iksY;k fof/k lfgr [kkst fof/k

5 f'k{k.k lkexzh

pkVZ uD'kk] fp=] freku ekWMy] midj.k] fQYe] fQYe&iV~vh] dk;Z&iqfLrdk vkfnA

6 bdkbZ ,oa ikB ;kstuk

7 ewY;kadu

       lexz ,oa lrr~ ewY;kadu

       ijh{k.k ds dkj & oLrqfu"B] fuca/kkRed ,oa y?kqRrjh;A

       funkukRed ijh{k.k] miyfC/k ijh{k.k] dlkSVh lanHkZ ijh{k.k] Cyw faVA

       fofHkUu dkj ds ijh{k.kkas ds fy, 'u fodflr djukA

 

nRr dk;Z &

 

1 ySuy ';keiV ,oa T;kfefr ';keiV dk fuekZ.kA

2 pkVZ ,oa frekuksa dk fuekZ.kA

3 f'k{kd fufeZr ijh{k.k ds fy, CywfaV dh :ijs[kk rS;kj djukA

4 d{kk uoh ds ikB~;e dk bdkb;ksa esa oxhZdj.kA

5 xf.kr ikB~;iqLrd dk ewY;kaduA

 

 

 

 

 

 

lanHkZ &

Mc Grew Hill Book Company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

tho foKku f'k{k.k

mn~ns'; &

1 fo|ky;hu fo"k; ds :i esa tho foKku dk LFkku ,oa egRo le>ukA

2 mPp rFkk mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ij tho foKku f'k{k.k dh ;ksX;rkvksa ,oa dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djukA

3 tho foKku f'k{k.k ,oa vf/kxe esa vkus okyh dfBukbZ;ksa ds fy, le> fodflr djuk ,oa mipkjkRed mik; crkukA

4 'ukoyh vf/kxe ds fy, mi;qDr iwoZ vuqHko laxBu esa n{krk kIr djukA

5 tho foKku f'k{k.k esa fofHkUu dkj dh vuqnsf'kr lkexzh dks rS;kj djuk vkSj mldk mi;ksxA

6 tho foKku esa midj.k fuekZ.k vkSj ewY;kadu djukA

7 f'k{k.k ,oa vf/kxe esa 'kgjh :fp fodflr djukA

ikB~;e

1 tho foKku & fr vkSj {ks=

foKku dh fr vkSj n'kZu] tho foKku dk mn; vkSj fodkl] tho foKku ,d [kkst

2 tho foKku f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';

tho foKku f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';] Cywe rFkk lg;ksfx;ksa }kjk fn;k x;k mn~ns';ksa dk oxhZdj.kA

3 tho foKku ikB~;e

ek/;fed fo|ky;ksa ds ikB~;e ds fl)kUr vkSj uhfr;k] tho foKku ikB~;e dh uohu o`fRr;kA

 

 

4 tho foKku % f'k{k.k fof/k;k

O;k[;ku fof/k] [kkst fof/k] n'kZu fof/k] k;kstuk fof/k] leL;k lek/kku fof/k] vfHkfer v/khxe] Vksyh f'k{k.kA

5 f'k{k.k lkexzh

tho foKku ;ksx'kkyk & fMtkbu] midj.kksa dk j[kj[kko] ;ksx'kkyk cU/ku] midj.k dh [kjhn] LofufeZr] f'k{k.k lkexzh vkSj midj.k] QuZ?kj] dkp dk ?kj] kxjh] tUrq rFkk ouLifr laxzgky;] tho foKku f'k{k.k ds fy, lalk/kuksa dk mi;ksx & i;ZVu] {ks=h; Hkze.k] O;k[;ku] jsfM;ks lkj.k] nwjn'kZu] foKku Dyc dk xBu] foKku esyk] n`'; JO; lkexzh dk mi;ksx] pkVZ] ek~My freku] fQYeiV~Vh] fQYe kstsDVjA

6 bdkbZ vkSj ikB;kstuk

7 ewY;kadu

       lrr~ vkSj lexz ewY;kadu

       ijh{k.k ds dkj & oLrqfu"B] fuca/kkRed rFkk y?kqRrjh;] funkukRed ijh{k.k] miyfC/k ijh{k.k] dlkSVh lanHkZ ijh{k.k] uhy i=A

       ijh{k.k ds fy, 'uksa dk fuekZ.k

nRr dk;Z

1 ekWMy rFkk pkVZ fuekZ.k

2 gjcsfj;e

3 tUrqvksa dk laj{k.k

4 ckxokuh

5 peZ lk/ku

6 tho foKku midj.kksa dk fuekZ.k] cU/ku rFkk lq/kkj

7 tho foKku laxzgky; dh LFkkiukA

8 ;ksxksa dh rS;kjh

 

lanHkZ &

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k

 

mn~ns'; & f'k{kd f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dh ;ksX;rk fodflr djus ds fy,

       m-ek- Lrj- ij lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';ksa ls voxr djkukA

       lkekftd v/;;u] f'k{k.k dh rduhdksa ls voxr djkukA

       lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k dh fofHkUu fof/k;ksa dk mi;ksx djus dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

       fo|ky; Lrj dh lkekftd v/;;u dh ikB~;iqLrd dk ewY;kadu djukA

       ewY;kadu dh mi;qDr ;qfDr;ksa dk p;u djukA

       'kSf{kd lkexzh dk mi;ksx djus dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

1 ikB~;p;kZ &

mn~ns'; & y{; ,oa {ks=

       lkekftd v/;;u dk vFkZ fr ,oa lkekU; fopkj

       fo|ky; Lrj ij lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k ds y{; ,oa mn~ns';A fo|ky; ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa dkS'ky fodflr djukA

2 lkekftd v/;;u dk ikB~;e & ikB~;e fuekZ.k ds lkekU; fl)kUr] ikB~;oLrq ds laxBu ,oa p;u ds fl)kUrA

       m-ek- Lrj ij lkekftd v/;;u dh fo"k;oLrq dk Lrqrhdj.kA

3 lkekftd v/;;u dh f'k{k.k fof/k;k &

       lkekftd foKku ls lEcfU/kr lkekU; fl)kUr ,oa f'k{k.k lw=A

       lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k dh fof/k;k ,oa rduhd ijEijkxr f'k{k.k fof/k;k &

ikB~;iqLrd fof/k O;k[;ku fof/k] dgkuh dFku fof/k] okn fookn fof/k] ;kstuk fof/k] [ksy fof/k] rduhdh 'u] dFku] ijh{kk & vH;kl] fufjf{kr v/;;u] ,oa nRr dk;ZA

4 lkekftd v/;;u dh f'k{k.k lkexzh &

       ijaijkxr lk/ku lkexzh & ';keiV~V ikB~;iqLrdA

       ekSf[kd lkexzh & dgkuh] mnkgj.k] ukVdhdj.k

       n`'; lkwxzh & okLrfod oLrq,] uewus] fp=

       JO; lkexzh & jsfM;ks] VsifjdkMZj

       n`';&JO; lkexzh & fQYe ,oa fQYe LVhi] nqjn'kZu] i;ZVu] fQYM odZA

5 ikB ;kstuk &

okf"kZd ;kstuk] bdkbZ ;kstuk] vH;kl ikB ;kstuk] pj.k ,oa O;k[;kA

6 lkekftd v/;;u dh ikB~;iqLrd ,oa lalk/ku &

       ikB~;iqLrd dh vko';drk ,oa egRo] ikB~;iqLrd dk p;u& fofHkUu Lrjksa ij dqN ikB~;iqLrdksa dh leh{kkA

       lkekftd v/;;u d{k

       lkekftd v/;;;u f'k{kd d O;fDrRo

       O;kolkf;d dq'kyrk rFkk lk/kuiw.kZrk

7 lkekftd v/;;u esa ewY;kadu &

       ewY;kadu dk vFkZ] mn~ns'; rFkk pj.kA

       ewY;kadu dh rduhdsa & fuca/kkRed] y?kqRrjh; rFkk oLrqfu"B dkj ds ijh{k.kA

       lkekftd v/;;u ls lacaf/kr ewY; rFkk ewY;kaduA

       bdkbZ ijh{k.k dk fuekZ.k &

       lkekftd HkkokRed rFkk euksf;kRed i{k ds vUrZxr oLrqfu"B ijh{k.k in fy[kukA

nRr dk;Z &

       bdkbZokj ikB~;ppkZ dk foHkktu rFkk mUgsa lgh e esa j[kukA

       lkekftd v/;;u dh fdlh ,d iqLrd dk vkykspukRed v/;;u djukA

       lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k ds fy, mi;qDr bdkbZ ;kstuk rS;kj djukA

       f'k{k.k lkexzh dk fuekZ.k djukA

       'ui= rFkk ijh{k.k i= dk fuekZ.k djukA

       lkekftd v/;;u esa ikB ;kstuk rS;kj djukA

       x`gdk;Z rFkk fy[kkoV dh tkap djukA

       dj.k ds vuqlkj pkVZ cukukA

       VeZ isij fy[kukA

lanfHkZr &

fcfuax ,oa vU; & m-ek- Lrj ij lkekftd v/;;u dk O;oLFkkiuA

usLys & gkbZ Ldwy esa lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k] rhljk laLdj.k] Mh-lh-gsYFk jksM daiuh] cksLVuA

,-ih- 'kekZ & lkekftd v/;;u ,oa ukxfjd 'kkL= f'k{k.k] x;k lkn ,Ma lal] vkxjkA

xq#lju nkl R;kxh & lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k] n;kyckx] vkxjkA

 

 

 

 

 

 

fof'k"V fo"k;

f;kRed vuqla/kku

mn~ns'; %&

f'k{kd f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks lEcf)Zr djus gsrq &

1 f'k{kk {ks= ds f;kRed vuqlU/kkuksa dks tkuuk ,oa f;kRed 'kks/k ds Hkkoks ds vk/kkj ij viuh 'kkyk esa lq/kkj djukA

2 f;kRed vuqlU/kku gsrq leL;k dks igpkuuk ,oa leL;k dk mfpr fu/kkZj.k djukA

3 f;kRed vuqlU/kku ds fofHkUu lksikuksa dks le>uk ,oa fU;kfUor djukA

4 f;kRed vuqlU/kku gsrq lkaf[;dh; rduhdksa dks tkuuk ,oa mi;ksx djukA

5 f;kRed vuqlU/kku dh ;kstuk] f;kUo;u] ewY;kadu ,oa frosnu rS;kj djus dh ;ksX;rk kIr djukA

ikB~;e

1 vuqlU/kku ,oa f'k{kk

       f'k{kk esa vuqlU/kku ,oa oxhZdj.k

       f;kRed vuqlU/kku dh vko';drk] fr ,oa ego

       f;kRed vuqlU/kku ds dkj & O;fDrxr ,oa lg;ksxkRed

2 f;kRed vuqlU/kku fof/k

       leL;k dh O;k[;k

       leL;k dh igpku

       f;kRed vuqlU/kku k:i

       f;kRed vuqlU/kku ds lksiku ,oa f;kRed ;kstuk

       f;kRed vuqlU/kku dk Lrqrhdj.k

 

3 o.kZukRed lkaf[;dh

       leadks dk lkj.khdj.k ,oa oxhZdj.k

       dsUnzh; o`fk ds eki & e/;eku] Hkwf;"Bd] ekf/;dk

       fopyu dh eki & ek/;fopyu] ekifopyu] prqFkZd fopyu

       lglEcU/k dh x.kuk & jsad fMQjal ,oa ksMDV ekses.V esFkM

       lkekU; lEHkkO; o & xq.k ,oa mi;ksx

4 fp=e; (inferential) lkaf[;dh

       leadks dk xzkQh; fcUnqjs[k

5 vuqlU/kku frosnu

       k;i] 'kSyh] dkj] mn~/k`r okD;] ikn & fVIi.kh] vUr fVIi.kh] lUnHkZ] i`"Bkadu] lkj.kh] fp=] fcUnqjs[kfp=]

       lUnHkZ] xzUFk lwph] ,oa ifjf'k"B

fu;r dk;Z & (Assignment)

f;kRed vuqlU/kku gsrq leL;k dks igpku dj fuEu esa ls fdUgh nks {ks= ij mldk f;kUo;u dj frosnu Lrqr djuk &

1 LVkQ 8 lqfo/kk,

2 fo|kFkhZ

3 vuq'kklu

4 f'k{k.k j.kuhfr

5 [ku lg;ksx

6 ikyd vfHko`fk

7 fo'ks"k vko';drk okys ckyd

kS<+ f'k{kk

mn~ns'; %&

f'k{kd f'k{kq dks ;ksX; cukus gsrq &

       kS<+ f'k{kk dh vo/kkj.kk ,oa jk"Vh; fodkl eas bldh egkk dh tkudkjh nsukA

       'kklu }kjk kS<+ f'k{kk ds fy;s pyk;s tk jgs fofHkUu dk;Zeksa vkSj mikxeksa ls voxr djkukA

       kS<+ f'k{kk ds vf/kxedkkZ dh fo'ks"krk;sa ,oa f'k{k.k ds rjhds rFkk ;qDr dh tkus okyh lgk;d f'k{k.k lkexzh ls ifjfpr djkukA

       kS<+ f'k{kk dh f;k dks le>rs gq, sfjr djuk rFkk kS<+ f'k{kk dk;Ze esa lg;ksx nsus gsrq sfjr djukA

       kS<+ f'k{kk dks laxkfBr djus gsrq vko';d dkS'kyksa dks fodflr djuk rFkk f'k{k.k vf/kxe f;k dks viukukA

ikB~;e syllabus &

1 kS<+ f'k{kk dh vo/kkj.kk &

       kS<+ f'k{kk ds mn~ns';A

       lk{kjrk ls lkekftd f'k{kk rd kS<+f'k{kk dh ifjofrZr vo/kkj.kk rFkk lkeqnkf;d f'k{kk ,oa lrr~ f'k{kk

2 kS<+ f'k{kk dh vko';drk &

       O;fDrxr ,oa jk"Vxr vkfFkZd fodkl gsrq f'k{kk

       O;fDrxr fodkl gsrq lrr~ f'k{kkA

3 kS<+ f'k{kk dk;Ze &

       LorU=rk i'pkr~ kS<+ f'k{kk dh fLFkfr & ukxfjdrk mikxe] lkekftd f'k{kk] jk"Vh; kS<+ f'k{kk dk;Ze ,oa jk"Vh; lk{kjrk fe'ku ds vk/kkjHkwr mikxeA

 

4 kS<+ f'k{kk ds vfHkdj.k lk/ku

       'kkldh; ,oa LoSfPNd vfHkdj.k rFkk fo'ofo|ky;A

       kS<+ f'k{kk ds laxBu esa fo'o fo|ky;ksa dh HkwfedkA

5 kS<+ f'k{kk dh fof/k;k &

       kS<+ vf/kxedkkZ dh fo'ks"krk;saA

       kS<+ f'k{k.k dh fof/k;k

       lk{kjrk dh f'k{k.k fof/k;k

       kS<+ksa ds fy;s rduhdksa ds lkFk f'k{k.k dh lkekU; fof/k;k

       kS<+ f'k{k.k dh fof'k"V fof/k;k & kFkfed ikB~;] iwjd iqLrdsaA

       lgk;d f'k{k.k lkexzhA

6 ikB~;e vkSj ewY;kadu &

       kS<+ f'k{kk ds vko';d ?kVd lk{kjrk] dk;Z lEiknu] vkSj tkx:drkA

       fofHkUu y{; lewgksa gsrq fofHkUu ikB~;e

       ewY;kadu dsUnz] kS<+ vf/kxe drkZ] funsf'kd] i;Zos{kd vkSj vuqns'kukRed lkexzhA

lanHkZ &

       vgen ,e & kS<+ksa ds i<+kus fy[kkus dh f'k{kk] lkdsgrkZ v/;kid ekxZnf'kZdk] f'k{kk ea=ky; ubZ fnYyhA

       HkVukxj ,l- & vk/kqfud Hkkjrh; f'k{kk vkSj mldh leL;k;sa&v/;k; &12] lekt f'k{kk ykW;y cqd fMiks] esjBA

       tkSgjh vkSj ikFkxkt & Hkkjrh; f'k{kk dh leL;k;sa v/;k;&4] lekt f'k{kk] fouksn iqLrd eafnj vkxjA

       kS<+ f'k{kk lalk/ku & v/;;u v/;kiu lkexzh jkT; lalk/ku dsUnz] kS<+ f'k{kk] e-- Hkksiky

       jLrksxh ds-ih- & Hkkjrh; f'k{kk dk fodkl ,oa leL;k;sa] v/;k;&17] kS<+ f'k{kk ,oa lekt f'k{kk] lfjrk dk'ku esjBA

dEI;wVj f'k{kk

 

mn~ns'; &

 

1 f'k{kd f'k{kfFkZ;k ds lao/kZu gsrq vk/kqfud rduhdh lekt ds lUnHkZ es dEI;wVj f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk dk ego le>ukA

2 f'k{kk esa dEI;wVj vkSj blds vuq;ksx ds ckjs esa le> fodflr djukA

3 'kkys; Lrj ij LorU= #i ls dEI;wVj ikB~;e ,oa dEI;wVj j[kj[kko dk i;kZIr Kku vftZr djukA

4 dEI;wVj vk/kkfjr vkf/kxe fo"k;oLrq dk mi;ksx djuk ,oa d{kkf'k{k.k dks Hkkoh <+ax ls vk;ksftr djukA

5 vk/kqfud oMZ kslsflax lkVos;j lapkyu esa vko';d dkS'ky xzg.k djukA

6 MkVkcsl ds l`tu] O;oLFkkiu ,oa dEI;wVj lapkyu dk dkS'ky fodflr djukA

ikB~;e

1 ifjp;

       lwpuk ks|kSfxdh dk ego

       rduhdh] dkj ,oa vkdkj ds vk/kkj ij oxhZdj.k

       dEI;wVj dk ;;ksx ,oa {ks=

2 dEI;wVj dh ewy ladYiuk,

       buiqV@vkmV iqV lqfDr;k

       dsUnzh; fo'ys"k.k bdkbZ

       Hk.Mkj.k ;qfDr;ksa

       vkWijsfVax flLVe

       vuq;ksx ,fCyds'ku lkVos;j

 

 

3 vk/kqqqfud vkWijsfVax dk

       Qkby ,oa QksYMj

       lkadsfrd ;qfdr;ksa ikbZafVax fMokblsl dk mi;ksx

       dV ,oa isLV

       Hk.Mkj.k ;qfDr;ksa dk mi;ksx

       ykih fMLd;qfDr] gkbZfMLd ;qfDr] lh-Mh jkse] vkfnA

4 vk/kqfud oMZ kslsflax ,fCyds'ku

       oMZ kslaflax dk f'k{kk esa ego

       vk/kqfud oMZ kslaflax ,fCyds'ku dh fo'ks"krk,

       VsDl~V ,oa vfHkn`';d vkWCVsDV

       VsDl~V ,aVh

       QkesZfVax VsDlV

       cksYM] bVsfyd] v.MjykbZu] ck,a] ek/; ,oa nk,a tlVsfQds'ku QksUV ,oa QksUV vkdkj cnyuk ] cwysVl ,oa uEcfVax

       ,fMfVax & flysDC VsDlV] Qkby vkSj fjIysl] dV dkWih ,.M isLV

       ,fMfVax MkD;wesaV & LVkbyl] Lisypsd] gsMj ,.M QwVj] QwVukaV] isftus'ku] lcfLIV] vkSj lqisj fLIV

5 ektuZ MkVk csl esustesUV ,sCyhds'kUl &

       ego & MkVk csl esustesUV bu ,sT;wds'ku

       fo'ks'krk, & MkVk csl esustesUV ,sCyhds'ku

       dkUlsIV & fjys'kuy MkVkcsl esustesUV fllVe

       QhYMl & uke] dkj] pkSM+kbZ

       MkVk cslsl

       QkeZl

 

 

fjiksVZl

6 dEI;wVj & Qkj tk; Qwy yfuZx

1 uhMQkWj tk;Qwy yfuZx vko';drk

2 dEI;wVj & gsYiQkj tk;Qwy yfuZx

3 dEI;wVj xsEl

4 eYVh ehfM;k & dsisofyfV vkSj vko'd;drk

5 bUVjusv dk ego vkSj vko';drk

6 bUVjusv vkSj 'kSf{kd lkVos'j dk mi;ksx

1 vlkbuesaV

oMZ kslsflax lkVos;j dk mi;ksx djrs gq;s fdlh ,d 'kh"kZd ij fucu/k fyf[k, & de ls de rhu fo'ks"krk,sa fy;s gq;s

1 isthus'ku

2 gsMj

3 Vq fQzUV isjsxzkQ LVkby

4 Vq fMQzUV vkWCtsDV

5 fiDpkj vkWCtsDV

6 cqysVl ;k uEcfjax

7 lcfLIVl vkSj lqqqqqij fLIVl

8 fleckWl ;k Los'ky dsjsDVjl

2 fjys'kuy MkVkcsl esustesUv lkWVos;j dk ,i;ksx djrs gq;s dksbZ ,d xfrfof/k dfj,

1 fodklkRed 'u cSd

2 MsOyfiax MkVkcsl Qkj LVwMsUVl ;k LVkWQ ftlesa muds uke MsV vkWQ cFkZ MsV vkWQ tkWbfuax@,Mfe;ku] osru@xzsM vkfn

vkWVksesVsM ffVax vkWQ layjh LVsvesav@ GPF fMMD'ku LVsVesaV ;k dksbZ vkSj 'kklfud xfrfof/k

lanUHkZ &

1 ,MEl] Mh-me- & dEI;wVj ,.M Vhpj vfuax

2 HkVukxj] ,l-lh- & jkekuh] K.V. & dEi;wVj ,.M bUQjes'ku esustesUV

3 lh-Mh- jkse VkbVyl voyscy ,v lkbcj eYVhehfM;k 35 4 Boys ,sfpyu bLVhV~;w'kuy ,sfj;k lsDVj 32 xqMxko 122002

4 nslkbZ ch- & MkVkcsl esustesUV fllVe

5 jktju ch & QaMkesUVy vkWQ dEI;wVj fUVkbZl gkWy vkWQ b.fM;k ubZ fnYyh

6 SAM Vksp ;woj lsYQ] vkfQl 97 bu 24 ?k.Vs] VsDehfM;k ubZ fnYyh

7 'klSyh] tkWu ,.m gUV] jkstj & dEI;wVj LVMhu QLVZ dkslZ lds.M ,Mh'ku A.H Oghyj ,.M co. Delhi

8 fo.Mkst 98 flEIyhQkbM] dkWeMsUl ifCyf'kax ubZ fnYyh

9 fo.Mkst 98 & uks ,sUliksfj;Ul fjDok;sM] BPB iCyhds'kUl ubZ fnYyh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

nwjLFk f'k{kk

mn~ns'; %&

f'k{kd f'k{k.kkFkhZ dks leFkZ cukuk

1 nwjLFk f'k{kk dh fr] ladYiuk] fo'ks"krkvksa ,oa frekuksa dks le>ukA

2 Hkkjr esa nwjLFk f'k{kk ds n`f"Vdks.k dk fodkl] Hkkjrh; lUnHkZ esa bldh vko';drk] dk;Z] Ldwy f'k{kk ds lUnHkZ esa bldh [kwfc;k ,oa [kkfe;kA

3 nwjLFk f'k{kk esa cgqek/;e .kkyh dh Hkwfedk fo'ys"k.k] ;qDr gksus okys R;sd ek/;e ds lEcU/k esaA

4 nwjLFk f'k{kk ,oa fu;fer d{kk .kkyh esa vUrj&lEcU/kksa dh foospuk ,oa blesa f'k{kd dh HkwfedkA

ikB~;; %&

1 mn~ns';

       nwjLFk f'k{kk dh vko';drk ,oa mn~ns';A

       nwjLFk f'k{kk dk vFkZ ,oa fr

       nwjLFk f'k{kk dh fo'ks"krk;sa

2 nwjLFk f'k{kk ds fofHkUu freku

       ijEijkxr fo'ofo|ky; freku

       eqDr fo'ofo|ky; freku

       fefJr freku

       mHk; iFk vUrjf;k freku

       i=kpkj ikB~;e

       cgqek/;e vk/kkfjr nwjLFk f'k{kk freku

 

 

3 nwjLFk f'k{kk dh fLFkfr

       nwjLFk f'k{kk ds fofHkUu mie

       mn~ns';] j.kuhfr;k] dk;Ze ,oa miyfC/k;k

4 nwjLFk f'k{kk cuke vU; rjhds

       nwjLFk f'k{kk ds xq.k ,oa lhek;sa

       nwjLFk f'k{kk dh d{kkxr f'k{kk ls rqyuk

       nwjLFk f'k{kk esa f'k{kd dh Hkkwfedk

5 nwjLFk f'k{kk esa ewY;kadu

       nwjLFk f'k{kk esa ewY;kadu dh fof/k;k

       bfUnjkxk/kh jk"Vh; eqDr fo'ofo|ky; ds jk"VO;kih d{kkxr dk;Ze ,oa kS<+ f'k{kk dk;Ze dk voyksdu frosnu

       utnhdh eqDr fo|ky; ,oa nwjLFk f'k{kk laLFkku dk Hkze.k

REFERENcE

1 Anand S. P.: University Without Walls, Vikas Publications, New Delhi

2 Borah S.: Distance Education, Amar Publications, Delhi

3 Chib S. S. : Teaching by Correspondence in India, Light and Life, New Delhi

4 Keegan D. : Foundations of Distance Education, second edition, Routledge, London

5 Khan, I.: Distance Education Some Readings, Amar Publications, Delhi

6 Mukhopadhyay M. (Ed.) : Yearbook of Educational Technology, 1988

7 Mohanty J. Educational Broadcasting : Radio and Television In Education, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi

8 Mukhpadyay M. (Ed.) : Educational Technology Challenging Issues, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi

9 Sahoo, P. K. : Higher Education at Distance, Sanchar Publications, Delhi.

 

 

 

'kSf{kd 'kklu] laxBu ,oa i;Zos{k.k

mn~ns';

f'k{k.k f'k{k.kkFkhZ

1 'kSf{kd 'kklu dk kjfEHkd Kku kIr djukA

2 laxBu dk kjfEHkd Kku kIr djukA

3 i;Zos{k.k dk kjfEHkd Kku kIr djukA

ikB~;e

1 'kSf{kd 'kklu dh vo/kkj.kk

       vFkZ] ifjHkk"kk ,oa fk

       vko';drk ,oa ego

       dk;Z ,oa ego

2 'kSf{kd 'kklu ds xq.k

       HkkSfrd xq.k

       ckSf)d xq.k

       HkkokRed xq.k

       O;fDrxr xq.k

       lkekftd xq.k

       uSfrd xq.k

3 'kSf{kd 'kklu dh LFkkiuk

       e/;ns'k esa 'kSf{kd 'kklu dh lajpuk

       jkT; Lrj

       ftyk Lrj

       fodkl[k.M Lrj

4 'kSf{kd laxBu

       'kSf{kd laxBu dk vFkZ ,oa fr

       laxBu dh fo'ks"krk;sa

       laxBu ,oa 'kklu esa vUrj

       laxBu ds #i esa 'kSf{kd laLFkk;sa

       ikB~; lgxkeh xfrfof/k;ksa ;Fkk LdkmfVax] xkbfMax] hM+k ,oa [ksy&dwn dk laxBu

5 'kSf{kd i;Zos{k.k

       vFkZ] ifjHkk"kk ,oa fr

       i;Zos{k.k dh vko';drk

       i;Zos{k.k dks Hkkfor djus okys dkjd

       'kSf{kd i;Zos{k.k dk dk;Z ,oa ego

6 'kSf{kd 'kklu esa uohu o`fk;k

       .kkyh mikxe

       ,oa

       ekuo lalk/ku dk leUo;

       f'k{kd

       laLFkkxr ;kstuk

       ikyd&f'k{kd la?k

       'kSf{kd 'kklu esa dsUnzh;dj.k ,oa fodsUnzhdj.k

 

nk dk;Z

1 lh-ih-vkbZ- dk;kZy; dh LFkkiuk Set up dk v/;;uA

2 ,l-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- dh LFkkiuk dk v/;;uA

3 milapkyd] f'k{kk ftyk ds dk;kZy; ds Set up dk v/;;uA

4 e/;ns'k esa 'kSf{kd lajpuk dk pkVZ rS;kj djukA

lUnHkZ

HkVukxj vkj-ih- ,oa oekZ vkbZ-ch- % 'kSf{kd 'kklu] vkj- yky cqd fMiks] esjB

HkVukxj vkj-ih- ,oa vxzoky fo|k % 'kSf{kd 'kklu] i;Zos{k.k] fu;kstu ,oa fok] vkj- yky cqd fMiks] esjBA

 

 

 

 

'kSf{kd rduhdh

mn~ns'; %&

1 'kSf{kd rduhdh dh vo/kkj.kk] {ks=] fr vkSj vko';drk dks le>ukA

2 lEs"k.k ds fl)kUr ,oa f'k{kd vkf/kkfjr las"k.k ds vk/kkjHkwr ?kVdksa dks le>ukA

3 Hkkoh las"k.k dk ewY;kadu

4 f'k{k.k vf/kxe xfrfof/k ds vuq;ksx ds vk/kkj ij .kkyh mikxe .kkyh fo'ys"k.k] k:i dh vo/kkj.kk dks le>ukA

5 oS;fDrd vuqns'ku ,oa eYVhehfM;k iSdsftax dh vo/kkj.kk dks le>ukA

6 'kSf{kd rduhdh ds {ks= esa 'kSf{kd uokpkj ds fr tkx:drk mRiUu djukA

7 ekuoh; lalk/kuksa ds vk/kkjHkwr dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djukA

ikB~;e

1 'kSf{kd rduhdh dh ladYuk & vFkZ] fr] {ks= rFkk dk;Z] lapkj fof/k] e-- ds fo|ky;ksa esa 'kSf{kd rduhdh dh vko';drkA

2 lapkj rduhdh & lapkj ds lekU; fl)kUr] vo/kkj.kkk] fr f;k] fl)kUr] dkj] vojks/k lhek, ,oa fof/k;kA

d{kk d{k lapkj ewy ladyiuk, & d{kk&d{k vUrjf;k] 'kkfCnd ,oa v'kkfCnd vUrjf;k] vUrjf;k fof/kA

Hkkoh d{kk&d{k lapkj ladYiuk] vkykspuk] ewY;kadu ds midj.k tSls XySlj & vUrjf;k fo'ys"k.k] yS.MlZ vUrjf;k fo'ys"k.kA

3 .kkyh mikxe & ladYiuk, rFkk fo'ks"krk,] .kkyh mikxe] .kkyh fo'ys"k.k] .kkyh k:i ,oa f'k{k.k vf/kxe f;kdykiksa ds fy;s budk vuq;ksx

4 vuqns'kukRed .kkyh ds HkkSfrd lalk/ku & ladYiuk] oxhZdj.k] {ksfir@v{ksfir@gkMZos;j@lkWVos;j gkMos;j & pkdWcksMZ] VsifjdkMZj] 'kSf{kd jsfM;ks] 'kSf{kd nwjn'kZu] oh-lh-vkj- bUlVsV LykbM esdj] vksojgSM kstsDVj] fQYe fLVi] LykbM kstsDVj] ,ihMk;Ldksi] n'kZuh; ohfM;ks] dEI;wVj] LksxzkfQd midj.k] lkWVos;j & fLIV vkWfM;ks ,oa ohfM;ks LykbM~l dk;Ze] vf/kxe lkexzh] fQYe fLVIl] ikjnf'kZrk] v[kckj] ikB~;iqLrd] o`kh; uD'ks] PLM]ekWMy] fp= vkfnA

5 'kSf{kd rduhdh esa vuqlU/kku & ohfM;ks 416] Vkd cSd] CAT bUVj,fDVo ohfM;ks] Hkk"kk ;ksx'kkyk] VsyhlHkk,] VsyhVsDl] ,oa ohfM;ksVsDl] VsyhQksu okrkZ] dEI;wVj uVsodZA

6 oS;fDrd vuqns'ku ,oa eYVhehMh;k iSdst & oSdfYid eYVhehfM;k iSdst ds ?kVd] .kkyh] k:i fodkl ds pj.k d{kk&d{k esa eYVhehfM;k iSdst dk ;ksxA

7 vuqns'kukRed .kkyh ds ekuoh; lalk/ku & fo|ky; .kkyh ,oa fo|kY; .kkyh ls ckgj ekuoh; lalk/kuksa dh igpkuA fuEufyf[kr fodklkRed uhfr;k& ,ElijVkbd] ;ksX;rk ,oa f'k[k.k] Lrkfor dkS'ky lw{ef'k{k.k ,oa dkS'ky vfHkxzg.k dh vU; dkS'kyksa ij vk/kkfjr rduhdsa] uhfr;k ,oa f'k{k.k ds frekuA

nk dk;Z &

1 :ijs[kk

2 lkWVos;j dk fuekZ.k & VkalisjsUlht] PLM] LykbM~l] fLIV~l] ifjn`';A

3 Lovuqns'ku lkexzh dk fuekZ.k & liksVZflLVe] yfuaxZ iSdst] cg~ek/;e iSdst]

4 gkMZos;j j[kj[kko dk;Z'kkykA

5 U;wudher lkexzh dk fuekZ.kA

6 04P LykbM kstsDVj ohfM;ks] dEI;wVj ds ek/;e ls ikB;kstuk dk fuekZ.kA

 

 

lUnHkZ iqLrdsa &
1
Brown, J.W., Lewis, P.B. & Halclereac: AV Instructional Technology Media and Methods, McGraw Hills, New York
2 Davies, I. K. The Management of Learning, McGraw Hills, New York

3 Goel , D.R. Educational TV in India Organisation and Utilization, Unpublished
Post-Doctoral Thesis, M.S. University of Baroda
4 Jerone, P.L. & Clarence, M.W. : A Guide to Programmed Instruction, J. Wiley & Sons, New York

5 Richmond, W. Kenneth The Concept of Educational Technology s A Dialogue with
Yourself. London. Weldenleld and Nicols, 1970
6 Sharma, R. A. : Technology of Teaching, Meerut : Lyall Book Depot, 1986

7 Singh, P. Cybematic Approach to Teaching, : The Progress Education, Pune, May 1984
8 Smith K. U. and Smith Marget, F. : Cybernatic Principles of Learning and
Education,.
New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966

9 Taber J. J Glaser R & Schasifer, H. N. Lea,nislcI and Programmed Insti uc(iOm1,
Addison Weler Read Reading Massachusetts, 1965
10 William D Bontwe: Using Mass Media in Schools, New Yoik, Appleton Century Crops, 1962.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

kjfEHkd f'k{kk

mn~ns'; %&

1 kjfEHkd f'k{kk ds mn~ns';ksa vkSj fof/k;ksa dks le>ukA

2 kjfEHkd f'k{kk dh vuqns'kukRed lkexzh dk fuekZ.k vkSj mfpr n`f"Vdks.k kIr djus eas dkS'kyksa vkSj nlrkvksa dks vftZr djukA

3 ^lh[kuk fl[kuk iSdst* dh tkudkjh nsuk ,oa d{kk f'k{k.k dk mfpr ca/k djukA

4 Nk=ksa ds vf/kxe gsrq :fp dk l`tu djuk ,oa muds fr&mfpr n`f"Vdks.k vfHko`fk fodflr djukA

5 Nk=ksa ds vf/kxe ifj.kkeksa ds ewY;kadu gsrq dkS'kyksa dks fodflr djukA

ikB~;e %&

1 kjfEHkd f'k{kk dk vFkZ ,oa mn~ns'; &

kjfEHkd f'k{kk dk bfrgkl

egkRek xk/kh ds 'kSf{kd er & csfld f'k{kk] kjfEHkd f'k{kk ds vk/kkjHkwr fl)kUrA

2 kjfEHkd f'k{kk dk lkoZHkkSehdj.k yksdO;kihdj.k

Hkkjrh; lafo/kkukUrZxr ko/kkuA

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dk e-- fr:i ekWMyA

vfuok;Z kFkfed f'k{kkA

3 kjfEHkd f'k{kk dh vko';drk &

kjfEHkd f'k{kk dk i;Zos{k.k ,oa fokh; cU/kuA

orZeku ifjn`"; eas kjfEHkd f'k{kk ds vko';drk vk/kkfjr ikB~;e ds fl)kUrA

10$2 i)fr esa kjfEHkd f'k{kk dh frA

4 kjfEHkd f'k{kk dh leL;k;sa vkSj funku &

fo|ky; ls R;kxh vkSj vos'k ds dkj.k A

mRikfnr dk;Z gsrq vkfFkZd dkj.kA

e-- ds gks'kaxkckn kstsDV ls fo'ks"k lUnHkZ esa & gLr f;k vkSj iqLrdh; dk;ZA

kjfEHkd f'k{kk esa dkS'kyksa vkSj lewg xfrfof/k;ksa dk LFkkuA

kjfEHkd voLFkk ds fodkl mUu;u esa iqLrdsa & ckfydk Hkkjrh] xzke Hkkjrh] ,oa e-- esa iapk;rh ;kstukA

ijh{kk & kjfEHkd voLFkk esa fo|kkfFkZ;ksa dk ewY;kadu & lkoZtfud ijh{kk vkSj la;qDr ys[kk

5 ftyk kFkfed f'k{kk dk;Ze & Mh-ih-bZ-ih-

       ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe

       dk;Ze ds mn~ns';

       f'k{k.k fof/k;k lh[kuk&fl[kkuk iSdst

       f'k{kd f'k{k.k

       ewY;kadu f;k

6 gks'kaxkckn foKku f'k{k.k dk;Ze ,p-,l-Vh-ih-

       dk;Ze ds mn~ns';

       fof/k;k vkSj rduhd

       vuqns'kkRed lkexzh

       f'k{kd f'k{k.k ,dyO; ;kstuk

       ewY;kadu dk;Ze

ASSIGNMENT & nk dk;Z

1 leLr lewg }kjk xzkE; dh losZ{k.k frosnu rS;kj djukA

2 R;sd f'k{kkFkhZ }kjk nks fo"k;ksa ij fucU/k fy[kk tkuk vfuok;Z gSA

3 kjfEHkd fLFkfr d{kk ds fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij vk/kkfjr f'k{k.k lkexzh rS;kl djukA

4 DPEP vUrxZr kFkfed fo|ky;ksa esa ls fdlh ,d fo|ky; dh i;Zos{k.k fjiksVZ rS;kj djukA

 

lanHkZ %&

1 vkgwtk vkj-ds- & ftyk kFkfed f'k{kk ds vUrZxr f'k{k.k&e-- jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/kku ,oa f'k{k.k ifj"kn HkksikyA

2 vjksjk] deyk vkSj nklxqIrk see & kFkfed f'k{kk vkSj kFkfed Lrj dh f}rh; losZ{k.k fjiksVZ & NCERT ubZ fnYyh

3 e-- ftyk Fkfed f'k{kk dk;Ze dk ,D'ku Iyku pj.k&Fke] jkthoxk/kh f'k{kk fe'ku] e-- Hkksiky

4 ^,dyO;* & ,d ifjp;] ,dyO; lewg Hkksiky

5 jk"Vh; f'k{kk uhfr 1986 & ekuo lalk/ku eU=ky; foHkkx

6 eq[kthZ ,l-,u- & Hkkjr esa f'k{kd f'k{kk ,l- pkn ,.M dEiuh] ubZ fnYyh

7 f'k{k.k fjiksVZ frosnu & ,dyO; lewg Hkksiky

8 f'k{kd f'k{k.k & ubZ psruk & vad &I, II-85, III SCERT HkksikyA

9 kFkfed fo|ky; ds f'k{kdksa ij dkf'kr f'k{kd leL;k dh fjiksZV & e-- & SCERT vkSj UNICEF

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i;kZoj.kh; f'k{kk

 

1 i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dh vo/kkj.kk

       i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dh vo/kkj.kk ,oa bfrgklA

       i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dh vko';drk ,oa egoA

       i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dk n'kZu] y{; ,oa mn~ns';A

2 i;kZoj.k] i`Foh ,oa tSoe.My

       i;kZoj.k] i`Foh] tSoe.My

       tSfod ,oa vtSfod ?kVdA

       ikfjfLFkfrdh;ka` rU=] Hkkstu J`a[kyk] Hkkstu tky] ikfjfLFkfrdh; fijkfeM

       tSfod ,oa vtSfod L=ksr vkSj mudk cU/kuA

       vif'k"V cU/ku

3 i;kZoj.k ,oa ekuo

       ekuo] i;kZoj.k dk fgLlk vax gSA

       i;kZoj.k ij ekuo dk Hkko% nw"k.k ,oa tula[;k

       lkekftd lkaLfrd i)fr] vkfFkZd lkekftd jktuhfrd laLfr ,oa /keZ

       i;kZoj.kh; f;k,] LokF; ,oa iks"k.k] lkekftd okfudh

4 i;kZoj.kh; tkx:drk ,oa laj{k.k

       i;kZoj.kh; leL;k ,oa lEc)rk

       thou dh xq.kokk

       foKku ,oa ks|ksfxd dk Hkko

       i;kZoj.k ls lEcfU/kr ewY; ,oa uhfr;k

       i;kZoj.kh; uhfr;ka ,oa dkuwu

 

5 i;kZoj.kh; f'k{kk esa fof/k;k ,oa ewY;kadu

       tkp fof/k] leL;k lek/kku fof/kA

       Simulation ,oa [ksy

       'kkyk ds ckgj vuqHko ,oa dslLVMh

       ikB~;e fodkl ,oa fuekZ.k dh vo/kkj.kk

       ewY;kadu ,oa cU/ku

       ewY;kadu ds ifj.kke dh mi;ksfxrk

 

REFERENCE :-
I Bergman, K.I. & Sergal ,L. : The Pollution Paradox, Spartan Books Inc. : New
York, 1986 -
II Diamant, R.M.E. : The Prevention of Pollution, Pritam Publishing, London, 1974
III Dorgra, B.: Forest and People. Himalaya Darshan Prakashan Samiti, Rishikesh; 1980
IV Glipin A.: Dictionary a/Environmental Terms. Roultdage & Kegan Paul; London; 1976
V Home R. M. : The Chemistry of our Environment. John Willey 65 Sons, New York;
1972
VI Mishra, A. & Aatreya I. N. : Desh ka Paryavaran; Paryavaran Kaksha. Gandhi Shanti Pratishthan; New Delhi, 1988

VII Raghuvanshi, A. & Raghuvanshi, C. L. : Paryavaran Tatha Pradushan; M.P. Hindi Granth Academy; Bhopal, 1987
VIII Sharma R.C. : Environmental Education; Metropolitan Delhi,1981

 

 

 

 

 

 

funsZ'ku ,oa ijke'kZ

1 funsZ'ku ,oa ijke'kZ dh d`fk

       funsZ'ku ,oa ijke'kZ ds dkj

       funsZ'ku ,oa ijke'kZ

2 O;fDrxr funsZ'ku ,oa ijke'kZ

       fo|ky; ijke'kZnkrk

       O;kolkf;d funsZ'ku f'k{k.k

       f'k{kd funsZ'ku ijke'kZnkrk dh lwphdk esaA

       ek/;fed 'kkyk esa funsZ'ku ,oa ijke'kZ lsok dk xBuA

3 funsZ'ku ,oa ijke'kZ dh fof/k;k ,oa midj.k

       ijh{k.k fof/k & cqf)] vko`fr ,oa miyfC/k ijh{+k.k

       vijh{k.k fof/k & lewg funsZ'ku] Carcl takes, ijke'kZ

4 ek/;fed fo|ky; esa dsfj;j funsZ'ku

       dsfj;j tkx:drk] dkS'ky ,oa lwpukA

       dsjh;j fu.kZ; dh dkS'kyrk & fo"k; dk p;u] Hkfo"; ls lEcfU/kr f'k{k.k

       ikB~;e ,oa Hkfo"; dsfj;jA

5 fo'ks"k vko';drk okys cPpksa ds fy;s funsZ'ku ,oa ijke'kZ

       migkj cPpsA

       fodykax cPpsA

       vykHkkfUor cPpsA

 

 

REFERENCE :-
I Abramson, Theodore et. a!. (Ed.) Handbook of Vocational Education Evaluation, Sage Publications, London
II Ball, Ben Career Councelling Practice, Palmer Press, London
III Brown, Duane : Career Choice and Development, Jersy Publishers, San Fransisco

IV CIRTES Careers for Arts and Commerce Graduates, Ministry of Labour, GOl,
New Delhi
V Dave, Indu The Basic Essentials of Councelling, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi

VI Mathur, Kiran Vocational Guidance Services in Vocational Schools upto +2
Level, PSS Central Institute of Vocational Education, Bhopal
VII Pasricha, Prem: Guidance and Councelling in Indian Education, NCERT, New Delhi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LokLF; ,oa 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk

mn~ns'; &

1 'kkjhfjd ekufld ,oa lkekftd LokLF; ds fr tkx:drk dk fodkl djukA

2 'kkjhfjd xfrfof/k;ksa dh vko';drk ,oa ego dks le>ukA

3 'kkjhfjd etcwrh ds fr dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djukA

4 [ksy Hkkouk] usr`Ro Hkkouk] lekftd lEcU/kks ds fr #fp mRiUu djukA

5 ikB~;lgxkeh ,oa iqufuZekZ.k xfrfof/k;ksa ds vk;kstu dk dkS'ky mRiUu djukA

6 LokLF; ds fr t:jh vknrksa ds n`f"Vdks.k dk fodkl djukA

7 /kweziku] efnjk ,oa u'kk[ksjh ds udkjkRed igyqvksa ls voxr djukA

ikB~;e

1 LokLF; ,oa LokLF; f'k{kk&

       LokLF; dh vo/kkj.kk ,oa vFkZ

       LokLF; ds lekftd] ckSf)d ,oa 'kkfjfjd vk;keksa ds e/; vUrjlEcU/k

       'kkjhfjd f'k{kk dk vFkZ] ego ,oa fl)kUrA

2 'kjhj dh ikSf"Vd vko';drk

       LFkkuh; kIr oLrqvksa dh ikSfLVd xq.kokk

       lUrqfyr vkgkj

       y?kq vkSj nh?kZ vkgkj ;kstuk

       yaSfxd vUrj ds vk/kkj ij dSyksjh dh vko';drk A

3 'kkjhfjd o`f) vkSj fodkl

       'kkjhfjd lajpuk & dk;Z vkSj ns[kHkky

       ikpu f;k

       'olu f;k

       mRltZu f;k

4 kFkfed] ?kjsyw fpfdRlk mipkj ,oa lqj{kk

       ?kj fo|ky;] lekt ,oa lM+d ij lqj{kk

       ?kj vkSj lekt esa gksus okyh lekL; nq?kZVuk, ,oa mlds mipkj

       fxjus] tyus] dVus] fo'ks"k HkVdk] laf/keXu vkfn ds kFkfed mipkj

5 LokLF; ds 'k=q

       rEck[kw] /kweziku] efnjk vkSj u'kk[kksjh

       lekftd] ikfjokfjd vkSj O;fDrxr thou esa budk Hkko

       lqj{kk o jksdFkke ds mik;A

6 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk dh vk/kqfud vo/kkj.kk

       'kkjhfjd f'k{kk dk vFkZ

       'kkjhfjd f'k{kk ds mn~ns';

       LoLF; jgus ds ?kVd ranq#Lrh

       f'k{kk ls lEcU/kA

7 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk f'k{k.k dh fof/k;k

       iw.kZ fof/k

       iw.kZHkkx fof/k

       Hkkxiw.kZ fof/k

       n'kZu fof/k

8 'kkjhfjd 'kSf{kd ,oa iqufuZekZ.k xfrfof/k;k

       'kkjhfjd xfrfof/k;ksa ds vk/kkjHkwr dkS'ky

       egoiw.kZ [ksyksa esa lgHkkfxrkA

       fteukfLVd] rSjkdh

       ckg~; lkgfld xfrfof/k;k] jkWd DykbfEcax] cksfVax VSfdax ,oa dSafixA

       Hkkjrh; [ksy dcM~Mh] [kks&[kks

       iqufuZekZ.k dh vo/kkj.kk Hkko ,oa vodk'k dk lnqi;ksx

       y?kq ,oa lewg [ksyA

9 'kkjhfjd 'kSf{kd xfrfof/k;ksa dk ewY;kadu

       fofHkUu ijh{k.k ,oa ekiu

       rUn#Lrh ,oa LokLF; dh igpku vkSj muds ?kVdksa dk fo'ys"k.k

       rkdr ;k lkeF;Z dk ekiu & 2 feuV lkeF;Z dk ekiu 12 M dwij okWd vkSj ju VsLV

       yphysiu ,oa vf/kdre lEHkkouk rd Hkqdus dk ;kl

10 ;ksx o vklu dh vo/kkj.kk

       orZeku le; esa ;ksx dh vko';drk ,oa ego

       LokLF; ds fofHkUu mikxeksa ,oa ;ksx esa lEcU/k

       ;ksx vH;kl ds lEcU/k esa egRoiw.kZ tkudkjh ,oa lwpuk,

       ;ksx ds ek/;e ls fofHkUu jksxksa dk mipkj ,oa jksdFkke

       [kM+s gksus dh eqnzk & vkLFkk pklu] f=yksd vklu] ikyFkk vklu

       lh/kh eqnzk & c)dks.kklu] if'pekskkuvklu] pklu] 'kyHkklu] ioueqDrklu] eklu

       'kh"kkZfeeq[k vklu & lokZaxvklu] gyklu] eRL;klu

       cSBus dh eqnzk & in~eklu] oklu] ;ksx eqnzklu] rksyklu] xkseq[kklu] 'k'kkadklu] 'oklklu

    k.kk;e & mTt;h k.kk;ke

 

 

 

ekiu ,oa ewY;kadu

mn~ns'; %&

 

f'k{kd f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks laof/kZr djus gsrq &

1 f'k{kk ds ewY;kadu ds egRo dks tkuuk

2 lrr~ ,oa O;kid ewY;kadu dh vko';drk dks le>uk

3 O;ogkjkRed inks esa f'k{kk ds mn~ns';ksa dks ewY;kfdar djuk

4 miyfC/k ijh{k.kksa dk fuekZ.k djuk

5 lkekU; lkaf[;dh dk mi;ksx ,oa nkks dk fo'ys"k.k djukA

 

ikB~;e %&

 

1 ewY;kadu dh vk/kqfud vo/kkj.kk &

       vFkZ ,oa ifjHkk"kk

       ekiu ,oa ewY;kadu esa vUrj

       ewY;kadu dk ego

       lrr~ ,oa O;kid ewY;kadu ds fy;s vko';drk

       f'k{kk dh f=/kqzfo; f;k

2 f'k{kk ds mn~ns'; &

       'kSf{kd O;ogkj dk vFkZ ,oa ifjHkk"kk

       'kSf{kd ,oa 'kS{kf.kd mn~ns'; es vUrj

       'kSf{kd mn~ns'; dh oxhZdj.k

       f'k{kk ds mn~ns'; dk O;ogkjkRed i{k

 

3 ewY;kadu fof/k &

       'ukoyh] lk{kkRdkj] ekiuh fujh{k.k] ';qM~;qy] ijh{k.k

       vPNs ijh{k.k dh fo'ks"krk,

       f'k{kd fufeZr ijh{k.k ds in &

k:i] uhy i=] ikB~;oLrq in fuekZ.k] Ldksj dqath

       jkWa Ldksj] osVhax vkWQ Ldksj] Mhjkb.M ,oa LVsMMZ Ldksj] xfr i=d] i=d ,oa ksQkby

       'u cSad

4 lkekU; lkaf[;dh &

       nkks dk lkj.khdj.k ,oa oxhZdj.k

       nkks dk fcUnqfp= js[kh; n'kZu

       dsUnzh; o`fr ds eki & e/;eku] Hkqf;"Bd] ekf/;dk

5 lkaf[;dh &

       lkekU; fooj.k ,oa lkekU; laHkkO; o

       fopj.k f'kyrk dk ekiu & eki fopyu prqFkakZ'k fopyu] ksMDV ekseasV ,oa jsad MhQjUl esFkM+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk

mn~ns'; %&

f'k{kd f'k{kq dks ;ksX; cukus gsrq &

       vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dh vo/kkj.kk dks vkSipkfjd f'k{kk ls fe=rk djrs gq, le>kukA

       xzkeh.k fodkl gsrq vukSpkfjd f'k{kk dks le>ukA

       vf/kxedkkZ dh U;wure vf/kxe vko';drkvksa dks le>kukA

       vukSipkfjd f'k{kk f'k{k.k ds mn~ns';ksa dks le>kukA

       vukSipkfjd f'k{kk f'k{k.k dh fof/k;ksa dks le>kukA

       vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dh 'kSf{kd rduhdksa dks tkuukA

 

ikB~;e &

1 vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dh fr ,oa egoA

vFkZ] {ks=] vko';drk ,oa ego

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk ds mn~ns'; ,oa vkSipkfjd f'k{kk ls fe=rk A

f'k{kk ds lkoZHkkSehdj.k eas vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk &vkSipkfjd f'k{kk vukSipkfjd f'k{kk ds fodYi ds & vukSipkfjd f'k{kk ,oa lekt ds vlqfo/kk kIr lewg & fiNMh tkfr] vuqlwfpr tkfr] efgyk ,oa vkfFkZd :i ls detksj oxZA

 

2 vukSipkfjd f'k{kk ds fofHkUu ekWMYl fr:i &

e/;ns'k es vukSipkfd f'k{kk dk;Ze

kS<+ f'k{kk gsrq jk"Vh; 'kSf{kd vuqlU/kku ,oa f'k{k.k ifj"kn ds ;ksxkRed nk dk;Z k;kstuk

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk ,oa kS<+ f'k{kk esa lEcU/kA

3 kS<+ f'k{kk dsUnz laxBukRed Lo:i

xzkeh.k o ?kjsyw losZ{k.k & uohu] vpfyr] ,oa Mki vkmV dsUnzkas dh la[;k dk fu/kkZj.kA

dsUnz LFkkuksa dk p;u & dsUnzkUrZxr {ks= v/;kid o i;Zos{kdA

{ks=k/;kidksa dk f'k{k.k ,oa vfHkuou mUeq[khdj.k] i;Zos{kd rFkk dsUnzksa dk i;Zos{k.kA

xzkE; leqnk; ,oa fofHkUu fodkl vfHkdj.kksa ds frosnuA

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dsUnzksa dh HkkSfrd lqfo/kk;sa & ';kei] iqLrdsa] LVs'kujh] dk'k O;oLFkk] lgk;d lkexzh vkfnA

4 vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dk ikB~;e

ikB~;e fuekZ.k ds fl)kUrA

fofHkUu vk;qlewg& 6&14 o"kZ] 15&35 o"kZ] 35 o"kZ ,oa blls ij gsrq fofHkUu

Fkd ikB~;eA

fofHkUu fo"k;ksa gsrq ikB~;e dk fuekZ.k & Hkk"kk] vadxf.kr] i;kZoj.kh; v/;;u

nSfud thou esa foKku fo"k; dh Hkwfedk ,oa vk/kqfudhdj.kA

NCERT }kjk fufeZr U;wure vf/kxe lkexzhA

fofHkUu kV dk;kZuqHko fo"k;ksa dk vf/kxe lh[kukA

5 f'k{k.k fof/k;k ,oa mikxe &

lkekR; fof/k;k & dgkuh dFku] okn fookn] n'kZu] {ks=kh; i;ZVu] i;kZoj.kkh; ,oa ,dfr mikxe] vkSj dk;kZRed lk{kjrkA

lk{kjrk f'k{k.k & vkafdd] lkekR; foKku] ,oa lkekftd v/;;u dk f'k{k.k

lgk;d f'k{k.k lkexzh & rkRdkfyd midj.k] pkVZl] ekWMYl fr:i fQYe vkSj fQYe fLVik rFkk jsfM;ks ikB vkfnA

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk ds f'k{kd gsrq vuqns'kukRed dkS'kyA

 

 

6 vuqns'kukRed lkexzh &

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dk;Ze dh lkexzh dh fr ,oa dkjA

LFkkuh;] fof'k"V lkexzh & yksd dFkk;sa] esys vkfnA

iwjd iBuh; lkexzhA

NCERT ,oa vU; vfHkdj.kksa }kjk rS;kj vukSipkfjd f'k{k.k dh lkexzhA

lh[kus esa Bgjko ,oa fodkl gsrq fufeZr vfrfjDr iBu lkexzhA

7 ewY;kadu

ewY;kadu dk vk/kkj & vkSipkfjd f'k{kk ,oa vukSipkfjd f'k{kk ds ewY;kadu esa fHkUurkA

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dsUnzksa ds fy;s fofHkUu fo'k;ksa ds ijh{k.k i= rS;kj djukA

ijh{k.k enksa i=ksa dh LFkkuh;rk ,oa fof'k"V frA

Nk= xfr ,oa la;qXeu vfHkys[kksa dk j[k j[kkoA

ASSIGNMENT & nk dk;Z

1 dk;Zjr vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dsUnksa dk v/;;uA

2 ,d xko esa ,d vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dsUnz dh LFkkiuk dk cU/ku djukA

3 ,d vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dsUnzkUrZxr vk;ksftr xfrfof/k;ksa dk Qkyksvi vuqcfU/kr djukA

REFERENCE-

Inter University Board (1978) :- Education Ministry's New Thrust For Non Formal Education, University News Vol .- XXI, NO - 9

 

 

 

 

 

 

tula[;k f'k{kk

mn~ns'; &

f'k{k.k f'k{kfFkZ;ksa es

       tula[;k f'k{kk d ego dh lekr fodflr djuk

       ekuo ds fofHkUu igyqvksa i {kksa 'kkjhfjd] ekufld] lkekftd] lkaLfrd uSfrd jktuhftd ij tula[;k o`f) ds Hkko

1 tula[;k f'k{kk dh fr rFkk {ks=A

       tula[;k f'k{kk dk vFkZ ] vo/kkj.kk] vko';drk] ego

       tula[;k f'k{kk ds mn~ns';

2 tuf'k{kk fLFkfr ,oa xfrdh

       forj.k ,oa ?kuRo % tula[;k jpuk] vk;q] fyax fo'o ,oa Hkkjr ds ifjs[; esa

       'kgjh ,oa xzkeh.k tula[;k o`f) dks Hkkfor djus okys dkjd ln~O;ogkj Hkze.k rFkk dfBukbZ

3 tula[;k rFkk thou dh fdLe

       lkekftd vkfFkZd fodkl dk tula[;k ls lEcU/k LokLFk; lalk/ku] 'kSf{kd ko/kkuA

4 ikfjokfjd thou f'k{kk

       ikfjokfjd thou f'k{kk dh vo/kkj.kk

       ikfjokfjd Hkwfedk ,oa mkjnkf;Ro

       ikfjokfjd vko';drk,

       lnL;ksa dh ikfjokfjd vkdkj ds vk/kkj ij ewy vko';drk, rFkk Hkko

       mkjnkf;Ro vfHkHkkod

       ewY; rFkk fo'okl

5 tula[;k lEcU/kh uhfr;k rFkk dk;Ze

       tula[;k uhfr LokLF; uhfr f'k{kk uhfr fofHkUu vfHkdj.kksa ls lEcfU/kr i;kZoj.k uhfr dk;Ze rFkk lkekftd vanksyu] LoSfPNd rFkk vUrjjk"Vh; vfHkdj.k tSls &UNPPA WHO ;wusLdks vkfnA

6 tula[;k f'k{kk ds fy;s ikB~;e

       fo|ky; f'k{kk ds fofHkUu Lrjksa ij tula[;k f'k{kk ds fy;s ikB~;e

       fofHkUu Lrj ij blds mn~ns';A

7 fof/k;k rFkk mikxe

       ikB~;e fodkl esa ,drk mikxe

       d{kk&d{k dh f'k{k.k fof/k;k] ewY; LoLVhdj.k rFkk tkudkjh mikxe ,oa fujh[k.k] Lov/;;u] ok&fookn] fu;qfDrA

       lapkj laBxu f;kdykiksa dk ;ksx

       leqnk; ds lkFk dk;Z

8 f'k{kd dh Hkwfedk

       f'k{kd }kjk ifjorZu ds ckjs esa l`tukRed lapsruk] u;s ewY;kssa ls tqM+h gqbZ tula[;k leL;kvksa dk Hkko ifj.kke rFkk Nk= O;ogkj ds #ikUrj.k dh fLFkfr;k voLFkk,s lrqr djukA

nk dk;Z

1 tula[;k f'k{kk ds ?kVdksa dk ikB~;iqLrdksa ds ek/;e ls fo'ys"k.kkRed v/;;uA

2 fofHkUu LFkkuh; ifjfLFkfr esa tula[;k xfr dh ,oa fLFkfr esa tula[;k v/;;u rFkk jgu&lgu ds Lrj ij mudh HkkoA

3 dk;Z dh xfr esa vojks/kd lekt ds vfgrdj oxZ tSls&xjhcksa dh xUnh ?kuh cLrh dk losZ{k.kA

4 ekrk ,oa f'k'kq dh ns[kHkky] LokLF;] LoPNrk lEcfU/k {ks= esa lkeqnkf;d dk;Z

5 fofHkUu lkekftd cqjkb;ksa tSls vU/kfo'okl ckyfookg vkfn ds fr tulk/kkj.k esa tkx:drk fodflr djukA

6 laokn ifjppkZ] laxks"Bh] lsfeukj] 'ukskjh fr;ksfxrk] ukVd] dBiqryh n'kZu] fp=dyk] tula[;k lEcU/kh lkexzh dk n'kZu vkfn dk vk;kstuA

7 tula[;k foLQksV vkSj fu;U=.k ij vfHkHkkodksa ds lkFk ppkZA

8 tula[;k f'k{kk dyk dk laxBu

9 tula[;k f'k{kk ls lEcg) LoSfPNd ljdkjh laxBu dk leh{kkRed vkykspukRed v/;;uA

REFERENcE

1 Ali S. A. Population Problems in India & Abroad, Jal Bharat Publishers, House, Bhopal

2 Malayya K. C. Jansankhya Shiksha, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra

3 Marie Mignon Nascarenses: Population Education for Qunlity of life, Oxford & I.B.H., New Delhi

4 Rao D. Gopal : Population Education, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi

5 Sal kar K. R. : Population Education for Development Countries Sterling

Publishers, New Delhi

6 Sharma R. C. : Population Trends Resources & Environment, Dhanpat Rai & Sons., New Dcliii

7 Thomson.& Lewis : Population Problems, McGraw Hills, New Delhi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fof'k"V f'k{kk

 

mn~ns'; & f'k{kd f'k{kkFkhZ dks l{ke cukuk

 

1 ckydksa dh 'kkjhfjd] laosxkRed] cSfn~/kd] lkekftd n`cZyrkvksa dks nwj djus gsrq vfuok;Z f'k{kk nku djuk] lHkh ds fy, f'k{kk

2 d{kk&d{k esa fof'k"V vko';drk okys fo|kFkhZ dks igpkuuk ,oa mldk ewY;kadu djukA

3 fofHkUu Curricular areas ds fof'k"V vko';drk okys ckydksa dks funsZ'kukRed fof/k;ksa }kjk vuqdwy cukuk ,oa Curricular lkeatL; ds fr tkx:d cukukA

4 d{kk&d{k esa fof'k"V vko';drkvksa gsrq fofHkUu lalk/kuksa dk mi;ksxA

5 dq'kyrkvksa dks fodflr djus gsrq %

       fof'k"V vko';drkvksa dks igpkuuk

       tgk vfuok;Z gks ogk fo'ks'k vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ gsrq vU; O;kolkf;dksa ds lkFk dk;Z djukA

       fo'ks"k vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ gsrq funsZ'kukRed fof/k;ksa }kjk ;kstuk cukuk ,oa mUgsa f;kfUor djukA

       nqcZyrk ;qDr ckydksa dks fo'ks"k midj.kksa rFkk lkefxz;ksa ds }kjk ;ksX; cukukA

 

6 nqcZy ckydksa ,oa nqcZyrkvksa ds fr ckydksa esa vk'kkoknh n`f"Vdks.k fodflr djukA

 

 

ikB~;p;kZ &

1 ckydksa dh fo'ks"k vko';drk,&leku f'k{kk ds volj

       f'k{kk ds vf/kdkj

       lHkh ds fy, f'k{kk

       leku f'k{kk ds lk/ku volj

       fo'ks"k vko';drk, ,oa lHkh ds fy, f'k{kk

       fo'ks"k vko';drkvksa ds ifj.kkeh dkjd ckyd ds lkFk esa] ?kj esa ,oa fo|ky; i;kZoj.k esa

       'kkjhfjd] ckSf)d ,oa laosxkRed nqcZyrkvksa ls ckgj mBrh gqbZ fo'ks"k vko';drk laEcU/kh 'kCnkoyh

2 fo'ks"k vko';drk okys ckydksa dh igpku o ewykadu

       'kq#okrh igpku dh vko';drk

       igpku irk yxkuk fof/k f;kdyki dkSu o dSls djs

       igpku ds Appearances vkSj O;ogkj

       lkexzh ,oa fof/k;k

3 ikB~;e lek;kstu ,oa vuqdwyu

fuEufyf[kr ls mBus okyh fo'ks"k vko';drkvksa dk vuqdwyu

       nq'; nqcZyrk

       JO; nqcZyrk

       ckSfn~/kd dk;Z dk fuEu Lrj

       lh[kus laEcU/kh v;ksX;rk nqcZyrk

       cqgvk;keh (Multiple) nqcZyrk

 

4 fof'k"V ,oa lkexzh

       laosxkRed :i ls nqcZy ckydksa ds fy, Aid .

       'kSf{kd f[kykSus ,oa vU;

5 d{kk&d{k cU/k

       fo'ks"k vko';drk okys ckydksa dh cSBd O;oLFkk f'k{k.k.

       Co-operative learning f'k{k.k

       ikydksa dh lgHkkfxrk

6 ewY;kadu fof/k;k

fuEufyf[kr esa ls mBus okyh vko';drkvksa dk vuqdwyu Adaptation

       n`'; nqcZyrk

       JO; nqcZyrk

       ckSf)d dk;Z dk fuEu Lrj

       lh[kuk vf/kxe dh Disability

       cgqvk;keh nqcZyrk

Assignments -

1 fo'ks"k vko';drk o ewY;kadu dh igpku

2 fo'ks"k vko';drk gsrq f'k{k.k

3 ikB~;e dk vuqdwyu vkSj fo'ks"k vko';drkvksa gsrq f'k{k.k fof/k;k

4 v;ksX; ckydksa ds lkFk Dealing gsrq vU; f'k{k..k laLFkkvksa esa Visit

 

 

 

 

 

 

tutkrh; vkfnoklh f'k{kk

 

mn~ns';

 

f'k{kd f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa dks voxr djkuk

1 lkekU; :i ls Hkkjr dh vkfnoklh tula[;k o eq[; :i ls e-- dh vkfnoklh tula[;k dh tkudkjh nku djukA

2 e-- dh vkfnoklh dh fo'ks"k thou 'kSyh ls ifjp; djokukA

3 vkfnoklh tutkfr dh 'kSf{kd o vU; vko';drkvksa dks le>ukA

4 vkfnoklh tutkfr gsrq fofHkUu 'kS{kf.kd .kkfy;ksa o fof/k;ksa dks ifjyf{kr djukA

 

ikB~;e

1 tutkfr

       Hkkjr ds vkfnoklh mudh lkekU; fo'ks"krk,A

       Hkkjr esa tutkfr;ksa dk foHkktu fo'ks"kr% e/;ns'k esa

       e/;ns'k dh rhu eq[k vkfnokfl;ksa dh thou i)fr&muds LoHkko vkLFkk vkSj fo'okl] lkeqnkf;d laxBu vkSj 'kklu] lkaLfrd o`fk;ksa&laxhr] u`R;]dyk] O;olk; vkSj m|ksxA

2 tutkfr dk fodkl

       e/;ns'k esa fdlh ,d tutkfr dh f'k{kk

       tutkfr ds fodkl dh vko';drk] miyC/k lqfo/kk,

       fiNys 25 o"kksZa esa fodkl

       fodkl dk;Ze ,oa f;kUo;u esa lekL;k;sA

 

3 tutkfr dh f'k{kk

       e/;ns'k esa fdlh ,d tutkfr dh f'k{kk

       lk{kjrk fLFkfr vkSj 'kSf{kd miyfC/k

       'kSf{kd vko';drk,

       kjfEHkd] ek/;fed vkSj mPp 'kSf{kd Lrj ij 'kSf{kd lekL;k;saA

       O;kolkf;d f'k{kk

       lekt vkSj lkeqnkf;d f'k{kk

       'kSf{kd lel;kvksa ds lek/kku ds fy, mik; vkSj lq>kkoA

4 tutkfr f'k{kk dh fof/k;k

       vkSipkfjd] vukSipkfjd vkSj vkSipkfjdrj

       lkeqnkf;d f'k{kk

       tulapkj

       nwj ds fy, mikxe vkSj muds Hkko

       fofHkUu mikxeksa ds fu/kkZj.k esa dkjd&lekt] vkfFkZd] lkaLfrd] ikfjfLFkfrdh vkSj jktuSfrdA

5 tutkfr f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu

       tutkfr f'k{kk ds mn~ns';

       tutkfr f'k{kk dk Hkkoh lkj

       tutkfr f'k{kk esa jkT;] tu&tkrh; dY;k.k foHkkx vkSj foHkkxA

fuca/k %&

1 fdlh ,d tutkfr ij lkewfgd f'k{k.kA

2 tutkfr {ks= ds lkekftd lsok esa HkkxhnkjhA

3 tutkfr lekt gsrq vuqns'kukRed lkexzh dk fuekZ.k fo'ks"k :i eas djukA

ewY; f'k{kk

mn~ns'; %&

       Nk=k/;kidksa dk ekuoh;ewY; f'k{kk ds fr mUeq[khdj.k djuk

       Nk=k/;kidksa dks ewY;ksa ds fodkl ds fl)kUr ,oa ewY; f'k{kk dh fof/k;ksa ls ifjfpr djuk] ,oa muds ego frikfnr djukA

       Nk=k/;kidksa esa xfrfof/k;ksa ds fuekZ.k ,oa lapkyu] laxBu gsrq {kerk dk fodkl djukA

       Nk=k/;kidks dks Nk=ksa ds fy;s ewY;f'k{kk dk ikB~;e fodflr djus gsrq ekxZn'kZu nsukA

ikB~;e %&

bdkbZ &

1 ewY;ksa dk vFkZ] fr] ego

       mfpr] f}Hkktd

       bfPNr vuqdwfyr ewY; ,oa mUkesa vUrj

2 ewY;ksa ds dkj

       ckg~; ,oa vkarfjd ewY;

       O;fDrxr ,oa lkekftd ewY;

       ewY;ksa dk inkuqe

       ewY;ksa ds /kkfjr djuk] ij[kuk] f;kUo;u

3 ewY;f'k{kk

       vFkZ] ifjHkk"kk

       lekt'kkL=h; vk/kkj

       vko';drk ,oa mn~ns';

       ewY;ksa ds fodkl esa fo|ky; dh Hkwfedk

4 ewY; fodkl ds fl)kUr

       lkekftd vf/kxe fl)kUr

       euksfo'ys"k.kkRed fl)kUr

       laKkukRed fodkl dk fl)kUr

5 ewY;fodkl dh fof/k;k ,oa uhfr;k

       ijEijkxr fof/k;k

       ewY; fu/kkZfjr ,oa oxhZr uhfr;k

       ewY; f'k{kk ds freku

6 ewY;ksa dk ewy;kadu

       ewY;kadu dh vko';drk ,oa fof/k;k

       ifjHkkf"kr vad ijh{k.k

nk dk;Z & fuEu esa ls fdlh ,d esa lgHkkfxrk

       lkekftd ukV;] ik= vfHku;] cPpksa ds lkFk leUo;

       vU; O;fDr;ksa ds O;ogkj dk fujh{k.k ,oa muds ewY;ksa dk ewY;kadu

       ekufld v{ke ckydksa ds ikydksa ds ijke'kZ dh vko';drk

       ijke'kZ lkekftd laLFkk;s

jk"Vh;Lrj ij] jkT;Lrj ij ,oa LFkkuh; Lrj ij

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

L=h f'k{kk

mn~ns'; %&

f'k{kd f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa gsrq L=h f'k{kk gsrq

1- tkx`fr dk f;kUo;u djukA

2 efgyk fiNMs+iu dh fLFkfr vkSj mudks mRiUu djus okyh #dkoVksa dks tkuukA

3 L=h f'k{kk gsrq mu f;kRed dk;eksa ds dkS'kyksa dk fodkl djuk] tks efgyk dh mUufr esa ck/kd gSA

4 L=h f'k{kk gsrq fofHkUu dk;eksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh kIr djukA

ikB~;e %&

1 Hkkjr esa L=h f'k{kk

       L=h f'k{kk dk vFkZ] ego rFkk mn~ns';

       #dkoVs ,oa mik;

2 Hkkjr esa fL=;ksa dh fLFkfr n'kk

       fiNM+siu ds dkj.k&lkekftd] lkaLfrd ,oa vkfFkZd

       fL=;ksa dh n'kk esa lq/kkj ds fy, lapkj ek/;eksa dh Hkwfedk

3 L=h f'k{kk ds lUnHkZ esa vU; dkj dh f'k{kk

       LokLF; f'k{kk] tula[;k f'k{kk rFkk i;kZoj.kh; f'k{kk ds fo'ks"k lUnHkZ esa fL=;ksa dh HkwfedkA

4 L=h f'k{kk ds fy, fofHkUu dk;Ze

       L=h f'k{kk gsrq fHkUu&fHkUu dk;Ze

       ckfydkvksa dh f'k{kk gsrq fofHkUu fo'ks"k lqfo/kk,

       ,df=r cky fodkl ;kstuk

       fL=;ksa ds fy, iBuh; lkexzh

 

5 L=h f'k{kk gsrq vfHkdj.k

       jk"Vh; ,oa vUrjjk"Vh; LoSfPNd vfHkdj.k

       ljdkjh laxBu

fuca/k (ASSIGNMENT)

1 efgykvksa ds fy, 'kSf{kd dk;Ze

2 efgykvksa ds fy, O;kolkf;d f'k{k.kA

REFERENCE
I Agarwal J C: Indian Women Education and Status Arya Book Depot New Delhi
lI Chaube S. P.. Tulnatmak Shiksha Vinod Pustak Mandir , Agra
III Dale R. R. : Mixed or a Single Sex School. Vol. III, Roultedge and Kegan Paul Humanities Press, New York
IV Desai, Chitra: Girls Education and Social Change : A. R. Sheth nd ,Co. Educational Publishers Bombay
V Devendra Kiran: Status and Position of Women in India Vikas Publishing House
New Delhi
VI Material Perspective Plan For Women Ministry of Human Resource Development Govt of India
VII Mehta Vimla: Attitude Of Educated Women Towards Social Issue National Publishing House Delhi
VIII Nayar Usha Education Of Women In South Asia Published In Tribune Patriot India, News, Chronicle Hilvada

 

 

 

 

 

 

f"k

lS)kfUrd &

       Qly mRiknu dk vkfFkZd ego

       Qly dk p;u & okrkoj.k] Hkwfe dk dkj o fr] flapkbZ dh lqfo/kk] ,oa cktkj ekx ds vk/kkj ij

       Qly dh lgh fdLe dk p;u & ikS/kks ds dkj] le;] mit vuqlkj cht ,oa cht dk;Z dh tkudkjh

       Qly & cqvkbZ ,oa jksi.k ds fl)kUr ,oa fof/k;k

       [kkn & Qly dh iks"k.k vko';drk, ,oa mit esa [kkn ,oa moZjd dh Hkwfedk

       flapkbZ ds fl)kUr] vf/kd flapkbZ ds nq"kifj.kke